Sacred valley of the Incas, salt, stones and secrets.
And it is worth deeply pondering, who are the Incas? Based on the fact that scientists can’t give a clear answer to many of the phenomena of this ancient civilization, and most importantly, I can’t explain the level of development in those days.
In fact, it is surprising that in an era when Europe had only dreamed about many discoveries in the field of different Sciences there, on the American continent, there was already such civilizations that have crossed the barrier of many scientific achievements and was developing at a much faster pace than it did Europe. Noteworthy is the fact that in the world of ancient civilizations of America the primitive state of manners bordering the extraordinary awareness in many Sciences, many of which in a society of this type do not fit in the minds of the minds of contemporary Europeans, however, and now us is even more difficult to understand this paradox of ancient civilizations.
Man is always motivated by a sense of lack of knowledge, and it will never stop the study of various phenomena, if there is at least one drop is unclear. Apparently this is the nature of the human mind. The failure of real testimonies and explanations of those or other phenomena of the ancient culture itself generates new research looking in the direction of the subject of study, because otherwise can not be. Ancient civilizations of America remain a storehouse of knowledge for all areas of the scientific world. Ethnographers find a lot of poorly understood or even unexplored tribes and peoples living in remote areas of the Amazon basin. Historians and archaeologists through archaeological findings and other evidence open to themselves and to the world unknown episodes in the history of the ancient world of America. Evidence of this can be seen in the fact that the attention of scientists and pilgrimage tourists of the city of Machu Picchu and Cuzco, the ancient capital of the Inca Empire.
The Incas (correct Inca) – the creators of one of the oldest civilizations in South America. Original Indian tribe language family the Quechua who lived in the XI-XIII centuries on the territory of modern Peru, later the ruling class, and also the Supreme ruler in the state formed by them Tawantinsuyu (XV century). They reached a highly developed social system, not having mastered even the wheel. To maintain the integrity of the contiguous States helped a highly developed system of roads. The Incas performed complex surgery, mastered the art of mummification. Built stone structures without using cement, while their buildings withstood such earthquakes, in which the later Spanish buildings were destroyed to the Foundation. Nevertheless, having a powerful centralized state, was conquered by a small handful of Spaniards. History of the Inca begins with the legend that is word of mouth passed down among the Incas – one of the first Inca – Manco Capac and his sister-wife Mama Oklo, performing the sacred will of their great father the Sun-the Incas, came out of the protected waters of lake Titicaca to create a huge country, where they will worship their heavenly father, who gave them a magical rod which was supposed to find the best place to build a city, which would become the new capital of the great Empire. Empire Of The Sun.
So, with the legendary first Inca, son of the Sun and began the dynasty of Inca rulers, each of whom expanded the Empire. There are twelve successors of the legendary first Inca. Their Kingdom lasted nearly two hundred years, until the horizon of history has not arisen Inca Pachacuti, the biography of you could easily write novels and put film. He was the youngest son of the Viceroy – the Incas the city of Cusco. Is associated with the creation of a new history of the Inca according to legend, Pakchoi told to destroy all previous documents, as unworthy of the great Empire of the Incas. Many even his name is Peculi – translated as the Inca called “the End of old and beginning of a new era” and all that made the old Incas before, almost completely gone, we are left with only names, dates and stories that have survived through a third party. But as compensation of the lost history, Pakchoi commanded to write all their actions. In the future, so did all his successors.
In the retelling of his descendants, whose blood has been mingled with the Spanish noble, giving gradually the beginning of a new nation, in 1438, the first year of his reign, the Inca Empire gained a new capital and a new story. The Empire even has a new position as an official of the historian – they were usually someone from the family of the ruler, carefully, diligently describing new campaigns and victorious battles. It was then that the army of the Inca was to capture the shore of lake Titicaca. The Incas took possession of thousands of herds of llamas and alpacas. It was not only meat, but also transport and clothing. It is no coincidence that Peculi announced these herds the property of the ruler. It was the beginning of the zloty century Inca. After his death, he was replaced on his throne the son of Inca Tupac Yupanqui, who became a great General and lucky Emperor-conqueror. He was replaced by nephew Huayna Capac. These three Inca rulers and created the great Inca Empire, in the lands where there were more than ten million people. During its brief heyday, it was superior to the military power of the glorious Roman Empire.
The Incas were clever rulers planning their actions for decades to come. So the seizure of territories of neighbors were bloodless, without bloodshed and fires. The Incas lean was to their future potential possessions, preferring, unlike the Spanish, living of the villagers ravaged desert lands. The Incas did not have money and therefore all the care of the stores of food and clothing took over the government, placing on their shoulders the need to provide citizens the necessities of life in all the nooks of this vast Empire. And that the Incas really did, even ordinary inhabitants of the Empire never left crop failures without food and clothing. In the Inca Empire existed special reserves in case of war, crop failure, natural disasters, and even to help the poor, the elderly and the crippled. In special vaults lay reserves of maize, clothes, weapons and much more for decades to come. Reserves, which the Incas did not have time to use most of which got ungrateful Spaniards. The Incas there was even a semblance of a future science of statistics – the entire population was divided into age groups and were calculated the load on each respective opportunity.
The Inca Empire combines such seemingly incompatible things as the deification of the Great Inca and some of the rules of socialism, the state was dominated by iron discipline – work were required, work was everything. Even all the crops and the harvest began with a personal example of the great Incas in Cusco. To perform heavy works (in mines, the planting of Coca and public construction) and service in the Inca army were appointed special forced conscription, called the Mita. Carried by healthy men in the Prime of life, and it lasted three months in the year.
When he died the Supreme Inca, a descendant of the “divine sun”, according to tradition, his body was embalmed and the mummy was left in his Palace. The new sovereign was forced to build himself a new Palace, and the lawful wife of the Supreme Incas could only be his sister, and all the other hundreds of women were just concubines, of which the most beautiful was considered a young beauty-devstvennicy – “bride of the Sun”. To select a special state official toured even the most remote places of the Empire, choosing among ten the most beautiful and most perfect girls then for four years taught the art of cooking, and then the girls once again chose the best, who became “brides of the sun”. They had to keep their virginity, which “had the right to break the” only the great Inca.
The trouble that destroyed the Empire came from within – when the ruler Huayna Capac died suddenly, on the throne, his eldest lawful son of Huascar. But in a different city craved the power his half-brother Atahualpa, and the struggle for the throne of the Incas killed more than 150 thousand people, was destroyed most of the relatives of both the rulers and killed the best generals. And then the last great ruler of the Inca Empire Atahualpa was captured by the detachment of Francisco Pizarro. The Emperor of the great Empire was captured by a ruthless man, who until recently was despised by all the simple Spanish illiterate swineherd. And this man managed to outwit the Lord of almost the whole continent, forcing him to pay the monstrous size of the ransom, but took the gold, Pissarro still broke his word and “condemned” already unneeded ruler of the Incas to death.
Great, did not have such craftsmanship and design gold ornaments inherited from ransom was put into the smelter. The Indians have again and again risen to fight aliens – but now it was useless. When some of them fought with the Spanish, other tribes and cities of the Spaniards helped, counting with the help of another weapon of unprecedented and terrifying horses to seize the throne of the great Inca and destroy competitors, to take revenge for murdered relatives. Settling of accounts between the Incas have gone too far – nobody believed anyone. Many leaders of the Incas in the struggle against Spain proved an apt pupil – began to adopt their tactics . So, having beaten the Spaniards have horses, the Indians turned their cavalry and even artillery, forcing the prisoners the Spaniards to shoot their own guns relatives. But it could not help – too many greedy outsiders were in the land of the Incas. So for a few decades the great Inca Empire was only a story.
Before, when the Incas reached its power in the vast Andean region flourished several other cultures. The first hunters and fishermen arrived here at least 12,000 years ago, and by 3000 BC the fishing village strewn all without coast. In the fertile valleys at the foot of the Andes and green oases in the desert were small rural communities. Millennia later, deep into the territory penetrated the larger social group. Overcoming high peaks, they began to settle on the Eastern slopes of the ridge, using the same irrigation methods that they have developed on the coast to irrigate their fields and harvest. Around the temple complex there were settlements, and the artisans made all the more complex pottery and fabrics.
Archaeologists klassificeret products Andean artisans for a temporary period and geographical distribution. To do this, use the term “horizon” to identify the main stages of stylistic consistency, break some features, from the point of view of aesthetics and technology. Early horizon: 1400-400 BCE of the Early intermediate period: 400 BC – 550 ad, Middle horizon: 550-900 ad Late intermediate period: 900-1476 ad Early colonial period: 1532 – 1572 ad
Francisco Pizarro in 1502 came to America in search of happiness. For seven years he served in the Caribbean sea, participating in military campaigns against the Indians. In 1524 Pizarro along with Diego de Almagro and the priest Hernando de Luke organizes an expedition to undiscovered areas of South America. But the participants did not manage to find anything interesting. In 1526, took place the second expedition, in which Pissarro namenyali of gold from local residents. During this expedition the Spaniards were captured, three of the Incas, with the aim to make them translators. This expedition was very heavy, their share fell disease, and hunger. In 1527 Pizarro enters the Inca city of Tumbes. From the locals he learns about a large number of gold and silver adorn the gardens and temples in the depths of their lands. Realizing that the necessary military power to obtain these riches, Pizarro went to Spain, and refers to Charles V for help. He talks about the treasures of the Incas, which can be quite simple to get. Charles V gives Pizarro the title of Governor and captain Governor of all lands he could conquer and control.
Even before the conquest by the Spaniards the Incas suffered from the arrival of Europeans on their continent. Smallpox decimated entire families have had to her of immunity of the natives. Around the same time die Huayna Capac (Inca Sapa). Highest state post should go to someone from the sons of the main wife. Chosen the son, who, in the opinion of the monarch, could better cope with the responsibilities. In Cuzco, the capital of the Inca, the nobility proclaimed the new Sapa Inca – Maskara, which means “sweet Hummingbird”.
The problem was that the last years of his life the previous Sapa Inca held in Quito. Consequently a large part of the yard lived in Quito. The city became the second capital of dividing the leaders of the tribe into two rival groups. Stationed in Quito, the army gave preference to another son, Whiny Capac – Atahualpa, which means “wild Turkey”. He spent most of his life next to his father on the battlefield. It was a sharp man. Later, the Spaniards were surprised at the speed with which he mastered the game of chess. At the same time he was ruthless, evidence that could serve as courtiers fear of incurring his wrath. Atahualpa showed loyalty to the new Sapa Inca. But have refused to go to the court of his brother, perhaps out of fear that Askar sees it as a dangerous rival. In the end, the Sapa Inca demanded the presence of his brother next to him in the court. Rejecting the invitation, Atahualpa deputed ambassadors with expensive gifts. Waskar, perhaps under the influence hostile to his brother’s court, tortured people brother. After killing them, he sent his army to Quito, with orders to deliver power Atahualpa in Cuzco. Atahualpa urged his loyal soldiers to arms.
Army of Cusco in the beginning even managed to capture the rebellious brother. But he managed to escape and join her. In battle, Atahualpa defeated those who captured him. Waskar collects in urgently order a second army and sending it to brother. Recruits with poor skills could not be compared with veterans of Atahualpa, and were defeated in a two day battle. In the end, captures Atahualpa prisoner Mascara and triumphantly enters into Cusco, and then was Swersey the massacre of wives, friends and advisers unlucky brother.
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