Under the guise of aid
The authorities plan to collect data on income and expenditure of the Russians, declaring that it would help the state to accrue benefits more targeted.
In going to create a single registry of the population, to which the Federal tax service. The bill passed by the state Duma in the second reading. In FNS now have information of registry offices since 1926, information about assets, income and large expenses of citizens. To them plan to add information on education, pension and health insurance, presence of a PI or registration as self-employed. Common database in which data about each individual person and his kinship, will allow us to calculate per capita income and family income, declare authorities. The document can take effect in two years. “Rosbalt” asked the experts about what are the prospects for the creation of such a registry, and why he really needed.
A leading analyst of the Russian Association for electronic communications (RAEC) Karen Ghazaryan:
“Registries in Russia a lot. In FTS, for example, there is data available on how much tax your employer deducts from the paycheck, how much the man himself pays for the apartment, car and so on. In the registry of the registry office data of birth, marital status, family composition and residency.
As for the single database is a utopia. Mikhail Mishustin not the first nor the last Prime Minister who tries to do it. And every time they will stumble on the same problem. Agencies that maintain their registries, they are not going to give to anyone. National security agencies are not going to trust someone to do a single register. Such suggestions are always going round in circles. Recently MPs voted for the registry, but I think this story will go on the same way that the national data management system and other.
We have seen the incomes of individual entrepreneurs and self-employed who have abellis. Upon request of the tax can also be obtained momentum Bank accounts. That is, if you are working in the informal sector, the formal tax may obtain information about your income upon request to the Bank. But first, the IRS needs to know exactly where you have an account. Second, not all banks are equally give out your data even in the case of a direct request. We have still millions of citizens rent apartments and not pay taxes for this, and no one has anything to do with them. Although, it would seem.
To cover the shadow income, not rewrite completely the Russian legislation, including the Bank secrecy act, is quite problematic. To put Rosfinmonitoring to monitor every citizen, too difficult and costly. The authorities have the dreams that will come to artificial intelligence, big data, and all revenues and expenditures of people can be tracked automatically. But while this is rather a dream far from reality.
Oversight of major expenditures in Russia, too, is missing, although it tried several times to enter including opposition politicians. It is technically possible to do. But there are nuances. If you have a desire to cover major expenses, apartments, villas, cars can always purchase the company.
Yet in order to track the income and expenses of Russians requires significant manual effort nothing would work”.
Former economy Minister Andrei Nechayev:
“I think the unified register of population is a fantasy. On the one hand, Rosstat many years selectively monitors the revenues and expenditures of the households. Previously, the office had about four thousand families, who received money for something that recorded everything of interest to Rosstat parameters, based on which we then compiled statistics and forecasts. On the other hand, the income of recipients of social assistance and is now transparent. If you want to apply for a grant for housing and utility payments, have to submit income certificate of the family.
If to speak about total control of the population, I have no idea how this can be done, and most importantly — on what legal basis it will all be based. There is now laws that could force families to report that this month they bought a TV, and in the past — the refrigerator. And I have not heard that such documents in the state Duma was going to take. And most importantly — how will this be monitored? An apartment, a car could be traced, it is the account of the traffic police, the registry of ownership rights. But for the rest check spending impossible.
In theory with these data and their validity, the government would better understand the real situation of the population, the number of poor who need assistance. We’ve still operates Soviet scheme, when a significant part of the subsidies and benefits are universal. Roughly speaking: the maternity capital for the second child you get does not matter, you earn 10 thousand rubles a month, or a million. From the point of view of the efficiency of public spending, it is not very reasonable. But anyway, to establish total control of income and expenditure in the country is unrealistic”.
Director of the RAS Institute of Economics Ruslan Grinberg:
“What Mishustin wants to see how much you get and spend the Russians, of course. In our country, a very large informal sector, which is neither to verify nor to count. However, the struggle of the state with informal employment in today’s conditions — as is the case when the cure may be much worse than the disease. Without the informal sector, many Russians are generally not able to earn a living. So now, the inventory is not a priority. Need to save people from poverty and possible starvation. A new economic hole in which we find ourselves, will not end with the withdrawal. She’s been with us a long time. And people have survived it, they need help. It is clear that the government aims to help spot, zealous. But in this difficult time to support people need in large quantities, even though the benefits may not to the most needy. Try using mass control and accounting income to save on cash payments is, I think, counterproductive.
The idea is to see all incomes, is not new. But still, even with self-employed to understand not very successful. Many of these have the banks: people take out loans, mortgages, pay by card for purchases. But it is impossible to obtain in our legislation. So, maybe it will be about limiting freedoms. Otherwise nothing happens.”
Former Deputy Minister of labour of the Russian Federation, associate Professor, HSE Paul Kudyukin:
“Talk about the targeting of social support are almost the 1990-ies. They are implemented with great difficulty. While we have a declarative order: family can apply to show your income and ask for benefits. This model leaves out the most needy and least educated citizens. Very often it is need have the worst access to information, the worst level of education, and not understand where to turn to for support. In this respect, if the state will consider the income of citizens may increase the targeting and allow you to reach everyone who needs help.
However, not very clear how to take into account informal incomes. According to conservative estimates, in Russia at least one-third of the economically active population works in the informal sector. In addition, there are people who only receive part of their salaries in envelopes, or informally moonlighting.
If you enter total control of the card transaction and try to limit circulation of cash, it will be another country. And it is unlikely that the authorities will succeed. Citizens have the cunning and will find a way these obstacles to get around.
The impression is that on the surface of this idea and to improve the targeting of social assistance, and fiscal consideration. In a situation when oil prices behave disgracefully, to pump money from citizens. And where they will take us”.
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