The first popular set forth the public nature of simulacra money in contrast to genuine money, as well as the place and role of simulacra of money in the modern economy as a means of distribution of all goods as such due to its public nature of the funds and of the highest titles of institutional power over the public production of mankind.
In Russia the bill “prices” of goods and services, wages and the wage Fund, “profits” and “losses” taxes and fees and, ultimately, GDP of Russia is in roubles. And even today all the processes of economic and social practices, public and private life in Russia “run” ruble, provided ruble and focus on the ruble, rezultirati in the ruble.
But what is the ruble or any other modern currency?
We are convinced, and almost all believe that the ruble is the monetary unit, money. It’s the same, in essence, is money, like US dollars, and euros, and yuan and all other currencies. These currencies differ “purchasing power”, the stability of the exchange rate, “geography” applications and, consequently, the “geography” of recognition (the use of) in the world as money, and many other characteristics, nothing is changing that all such national currency inherently is (no tolerance even any shadow of a doubt) money. For what is money, established by Law and recognized “all around the world” from among “mentally healthy people”…
Popular, but very briefly about the nature of money.
Until the actual abandonment of the gold standard worldwide by money in the strict sense of the word was metallic gold bullion was used as a sole and exclusive world money as measure of value, means of payment, medium of exchange, capital accumulation (education is treasure) and how the actual world money.
The fact that in some regions of the world, including colonies, for example, in the Middle ages in Western Europe or in India in the 19th century, instead of the metallic gold as money or metal along with gold as money was also used metallic silver, nothing has changed in the social nature and functions of money. And what they were?
Money is primarily a commodity, that is the material good, suitable and designed to meet any specific needs of people (with specific utility for consumers and it is because of this having use-value or value).
However, the money second, is a product that is able to exchange and actually exchanged for any other without exception product, as a consequence, speaking in public practice equivalent of all other commodities.
Thirdly, metallic gold bullion as it is such a versatile product that performs a public function of money, the economic practice of mankind, lasting many millennia, is recognized as such a universal commodity equivalent of all other commodities, without exception.
But how can balance and share as equal (equivalent) products a huge (uncountable) a variety of specific products? Because each of the goods, being taken by nature, not reducible to any other product, with the exception only of those goods which is identical with it in their physical and consumer properties. How to measure and equate to each other a certain amount of carrots and the loom, for example, and how much (the mass) that carrots should be given for the press, that the exchange was equal, equivalent?
And if the exchange is not directly the carrots on the machine, and oposredstvovanii this exchange of metallic gold, that much gold in milligrams, grams or kilograms must pay in exchange for a carrot or for a machine that this exchange was equal (equivalent)? It is the only mediation allows you to separate the exchange of all goods to all goods in time and space.
In practice, different in quality (the totality of properties and characteristics of natural or consumer) objects (real or any other) comparable only if and insofar when and as they kept to the same quality. And only in such General and common to all of them quality are so different for its natural quality items can be somereni, that is, one quantity of one item can be equal to some other number other object.
This common and the only shared quality for all goods is simply that they are all products of human labor, as materialized results of a certain quantity of labor and containing this quantity of labor. And it’s the only thing in common for all products quality, which is inherent in every product, without exception, there is nothing else besides it (this product) as a social – not natural (natural) quality, namely, the public quality of the product. And here is the public as any product called (product) cost.
So, the value of any commodity is determined by the quantity of labor materialized and, therefore, the prisoner in this product. But what can be measured by the amount of labor? Only the duration of working time spent on the relevant work of all employees (total employee), each of which in one way or another some extent directly and indirectly involved in the production (creation) of the product. And this product is exactly as a consequence is the result of the labour of the aggregate worker in General.
However, the work of each particular employee and, therefore, individual working time, quantitatively and qualitatively different from concrete labor (working time) of all other employees. How to measure in practice? How they compare humanity a hundred, a thousand years ago?
Through all of the varieties of concrete labour to abstract (General, universal) working time that the public need for the production of these particular goods in the existing social conditions of their production and circulation. The appeal of the products is systematically and regularly recurring (recurring again and again) acts of exchange, each and every one of the goods in the end, on all other items.
But directly carry out such mixing of all kinds of concrete labor to its universal genus, that is, to abstract socially necessary labour for the production of any and all commodities involved in a myriad and hecatombe acts of exchange, it is impossible. Is stalled, hopelessness? No human practice is very long (several millennia ago) found a solution, and that practical decision just became money.
Why money has become such a solution? Because money is also a commodity, but this commodity, which is the universal equivalent of all other commodities is because it (the money) is also a product of labor, which contains very specific data are historical (social) conditions, the amount of socially necessary working time.
In what sense or by what their as money is the universal equivalent of all other commodities? In its natural quality of gold (silver), or by their social quality – cost? Exclusively and only in its public quality, and cost. Any other equivalence (equality) with other goods, in addition to equality on the cost, metallic gold (silver), performing the function of money, has not, and can not have.
In other words, because money has become a practical solution to the problem of all goods to one common for them as they (the money), being a commodity, in the same way as all other goods, have a cost – physically, a certain amount of gold metal that is performing a public function of money, has a definite value (a number) value.
But (and this is the crux of the matter, as the mystery value, which does not understand, does not know the most reputable from among the proprietary economists) because it is written, the value of physically the same quantity of gold, performing the function of money, different in different historical circumstances in different historical times.
Total (absolute) and specific (per unit of physical mass) the magnitude of the cost of the money (metallic gold, performing the public function of money) has always changed and change is not just in time but historically they have always changed, and changed to this day.
These values of the cost physically of a certain quantity of money (metallic gold as money) at every moment of time no matter what time and where for the first time, produced this specific ingot of gold metal that one sees now, or holds in his hands. And this is true for the value of any goods, all goods without exception.
In practice, of course, never tried to calculate (the thought does not even arise – there is no public need was not in it), and is not counted, and in principle could not calculate, and is not yet able to calculate the number of General (abstract) the socially necessary labour contained in unit mass of metal of gold bars.
But what if all of this reduction of all goods to a certain quantity of the same social quality (to a certain value) was close to for thousands of years different generations of people in different and geographically distant from each other countries?
Through hecatomb acts of exchange of all commodities, ultimately, to a specific physical quantity of gold and Vice versa – specific physical quantities of metallic gold on a quantity of any other commodity.
All of this is then (after the fact) the first political economists, starting at least with Aristotle, in the end, summarized under the name of commodity-money circulation in the free market, that is, in conditions of free competition, etc., etc. Free of commodity-money circulation in the free market, end up covering and engulfing, subordinating and dominating the whole mastered and has people the world (the ecumene).
Symbols of money and banknotes.
Because of many objective conditions and circumstances, primarily having virtually meaningful, metallic gold bullion as money was directly used as world money, i.e. in the international exchange of goods in international trade.
In practice, very long ago there were coins not just gold, but other metals and bullion (was and wooden, stone, and other “coins”).
At the end of the 13th century in China and in the early 18th century in France (implemented government project by Scottish economist and lender-speculator John law) were “paper money”.
But what are, in reality, all these coins and “paper money”?
In fact, it is monetary signs or symbols (public representatives) money authentic metal gold bullion, performing the function of money.
Symbols of money only and only in lieu of genuine money in commodity-money circulation, introducing in the society and for the society (in public practice) these genuine money and at the same time, technically facilitating and simplifying the whole process of seeking genuine money, as well as reducing total costs of this appeal.
The symbol of money (regardless of the physical media) itself (its actual content) is not the same value that it represents and replaces the circulation of goods. And goods as such symbols of money are not. This is most evident not only and not so much on paper-characters, but how the example entries in the accounts of the treasuries and the banks, executed on paper or other (including electronic) media.
A certain amount of characters of money is just a symbol (representative of the society and to society) of a certain size (amount) of a General commodity-equivalent, which is the only money (regardless of the genuine gold, silver or any other nature of that specific universal product equivalent they have).
The magnitude (amount) of money, the symbol of which was a specific number of pieces of “paper money” and coins was determined by the official money (gold or silver) the course of “national marks of money.” At this rate the Treasury or the Bank authorized by the state concerned to discharge the functions of a Central Bank (Issuer of the national currency) had to be exchanged (to tatarinowii) issued (issued) to them in the appeal “paper and monetary signs” on the appropriate amount of the universal commodity equivalent (gold metallic bullion of a certain sample). Exchange they are guaranteed to perform and are actually carried out on demand of any bearer of the “national marks of money.” But if this does not happen, it was identical to the default or financial collapse of the government concerned and its chief financial agent (Treasury or Central Bank), which is often manifested in different social disorganization and political crises.
Any character of money if it is really a symbol of money, involves two essential social conditions, each of which is absolutely necessary in order for these signs of money in fact, were symbols of money.
The first condition is that the allocation of money (metallic gold, effectively performing the function of money in commodity-money circulation) and total (General) use of this universal product, equivalent in economic practice in his public as money.
The second condition is systematic and regular practical confirmation as obvious to all participants of commodity-money circulation public fact: these “signs of money” (banknotes) are truly symbols of money, which anytime can be Tatarinova immediately upon their presentation of hoarding (exchanged for cash) at the official cash rate.
In other words, the symbol of money, always and everywhere, at any given time and in any place, sends all current holders of the presenters and the recipients of this symbol of money to the case-specific actual value (weight) of the authentic money – the universal commodity-equivalent public which performs the function of a metallic gold bullion of a certain (officially announced and guaranteed) of the sample.
Simultaneously, every symbol of money sending all of their current holders, presenters and recipients to your Issuer – the one who released this character of money in circulation and guaranteed his immediate hoarding in genuine money on terms officially established, publicly available and unchanged for quite a long time.
But the government or Bank that issued “banknotes”, as money is the primary (highest) institutional intermediary that guarantees to the society, and virtually ensuring the implementation of their guarantee that they are released into circulation “signs of money” really are the true symbols of money in the present and in lieu of money in commodity-money circulation.
Institutions are norms, rules, traditions established in the state and the community as binding (use) in all areas of the state, its entity within the Corporation, etc. But institutions are not only those formal norms, rules and customs. Institutions there are also those informal norms, rules, customs, usages and traditions, which are (performed) in practice (in fact), handling all this practice, along or in spite of formal institutions. And one example of this in full is every and any practice, performed by “concepts”.
Only at observance in practice of all the social conditions corresponding to the “banknotes” are symbols of money. And only in this case solely and only on these conditions in their entirety “national Bank notes” and the corresponding “national currency” are actually symbols of money representing the residual and money in the actual money and commodity-money circulation.
In other words, only when the practical implementation of all the conditions corresponding to the national currency lawfully used as a measure of value, means of payment, means of circulation, means of accumulation (education is treasure), and as world money (“reserve currency”).
Whether any of the current national currency of the listed conditions? Does not match. Are these currency money? No. Well, at least the symbols of money they are? Also no, clearly and obviously no.
And what all current national currencies are really? They are what simulates, or rather to say – that simulates the symbols of money and money itself. In short, they are the simulacra of money. But more on that in the next section.
Distribution under the form of exchange and is exchange: simulacra of money.
The current currency, like any other foreign and the most that neither is “green” – the currency is the universal equivalent of goods is not. And is not primarily because the ruble itself, like any other modern currency, not a commodity.
And precisely because of this ruble (any other modern currency) no cost do not have, because by its very public nature, the ruble, like any modern currency, the cost can not have a General word at all.
But maybe the current currency, like U.S. dollar, etc., is the symbol of money? No, they can’t be symbols of money simply because that money out of the economy not only removed, but their appeal is institutionally banned, at least from the beginning of the “New course” in the United States, the abandonment of the “gold standard” in all other States, including rejection of the “Golden Ducat” in the USSR.
No money, that there is no universal product equivalent or the ruble or the dollar or any other currency do not represent and not replace any products in circulation or in the economy generally. But what or whom is in this case, a simulacrum of money? To what or to whom he sends, if he can’t send money, because they are in public practice, no?
A simulacrum of money represents (= is the public representative) exclusively and only higher institutional power over the process of social production. And it that for an animal such? This is a global (with its national divisions) financial capital, which finally and irreversibly has become the entire social capital (whole capital in the world) due to the withdrawal of money from the economic practices and their replacement by simulacra of money.
The process of this conversion, that is, the process of the formation of the whole world capital global financial capital has become irreversible, at least from the time of and in the course of the world’s first great depression called the Long depression which lasted from 1873 to 1896. But – this is a separate subject not directly related to the subject of this article.
The primary Issuer of the national currency, the symbiosis is actually the Central Bank and the government of the state concerned, is nothing more than an agent (institutional agent – in the sense of civil and public law) is a global financial capital. Although this is the highest agent of the global financial capital, that he does not lose his public character of the agent of Finance capital. Global Finance capital personified by the Corporation (to the General public informal Corporation) active members of international corporations, global financial capitalists. This is a modern new and financial aristocracy that publicly and privately are often referred to as the oligarchy.
Capital in General and Finance capital in particular, have a higher total power-a property over the public production process in a global, i.e. worldwide scale. Funds and titles of this higher total power in fact are all simulacra of money. And only insofar as they have the means and the titles of this higher total power, they are also titles and rights of claim (coupons) of any of the products. For every product there is a product manufactured and financial capital, its use as capital. No other goods other than those manufactured by the global financial capital in the world for a long time already almost gone.
And only these products are distributed, in the end, again, the global financial capital (this is all relevant combinations of agents of Finance capital) to the private appropriation or that are the same in private consumption. This essentially does not change anything what will it be private consumption (equal to private appropriation). Namely – whether it is private productive consumption, i.e. the production of goods, or it will use-production, that is, the reproduction of people and society as a whole.
But what is it – the ruble and other national currencies, except that it simulates the money in economic practice, public presenting a global financial capital and as a means of realization of its total power-ownership of everything and all material wealth, at least? What else besides already mentioned, by its public nature is a simulacrum of money?
A simulacrum of money (the ruble, dollar and any other currency) in the economic relationship, there’s only depersonalized (to bearer) universal distributors pass the title or right of claim of use-values in General. That is pass (the title rights requirements) to any sorts of use-value, that is, goods in General.
In the simulacrum of money, all commodities (as use value) is also impersonal, as the current owner of this simulacrum of money. Although use-value and assumed that card (the title rights requirements) as specific, but it is a simulacrum of money, they are not marked and are not specifically listed, that is, any goods – anything that is produced, distributed and consumed as a commodity.
Note immediately – the right to claim its current holder, and the holder of such a card (the title rights requirements) formally gives, but receive the required “in exchange” for his use-values (goods, including all services and all work, as in the future) does not guarantee – does not guarantee.
A simulacrum of money, that is, a pass (the title) claims, without having in himself and not representing any value, use-value has. And it is because of this he gets the opportunity to fake money, that is a General commodity-equivalent.
Use-value the ruble as a simulacrum of money has only in so far as the highest institutional authorities of the Russian Federation it is legalized (approved by law) as the money and instead of money in the entire territory of the Russian Federation in the first place. And secondly, this card (the title) claims of goods has its special use-value only in so far as all participants (or the absolute majority of participants) of economic relations on the territory of the Russian Federation it is recognized as money and is money.
That is everything said in the previous paragraph is the place to be, unless the legislation of the Russian Federation is consistently and appropriately performed throughout the territory of the Russian Federation without any exceptions and deviations, including “like clockwork” and no additional “grease” on the part of stakeholders working an entire institutional mechanism providing the fulfillment of obligations. Until forced to it by force of state power regardless of the formal and informal status to persons concerned in that state, in the third.
What is the use-value of the simulacrum of money? Like every use-value, it is the usefulness of the relevant “thing” to meet certain (specific) needs of participants of economic relations.
The usefulness of the simulacrum of money in the General view is that he (the simulacrum of money) is used in economic relations as money and is money that is used according to the rules of use (circulation) of money instead of money itself and how the money in all of those economic relations in which first used money.
Because money is used as a universal equivalent of all commodities, a measure of value, means of payment, means of circulation, means of accumulation (education is treasure) and of world money, the extent and the simulacra of money are used instead of money in all of these economic functions. That is a simulacrum of institutional money and threatened the use of force by the state is identified with the symbol of money.
However, so it seems only formally, and ideologically, first of all, all participants of economic relations, whose consciousness is entirely subordinated to this ideology (absolutely the dominant social psychology), fully captured by this ideology of “full” and is kept in it.
Basically, it seems this whole modern economic science (theoretical public consciousness), that is, bourgeois economic science, including in her and the entire former (ex only?) the Soviet economic science, without exception. No other than bourgeois economic science was not, and can not be.
However, in reality, has long been the situation is quite different. No exchange of goods can not be, and not in social conditions in which and because of which genuine money withdrawn from the economy and totally replaced by simulacra of money.
Goods can only be exchange for its value as equal to cost (equal in value quantities of goods in kind). And exchange all the goods for a very long time already not directly (product for product), and through the exchange of all goods at one of the universal commodity-equivalent, which became an independent value, ie through the exchange of all goods for money.
When and if the so-called unequal exchange, then we are talking either about the expropriation (seizure free) in varying degrees (partial and complete expropriation of the goods in kind and its value), or on the distribution of goods, which is carried out under the guise of exchange of goods and exchange of goods.
The distribution of goods under the guise of exchange and how exchange is carried out when the money is withdrawn from the economy and replaced by the simulacra of money, which are used as money and is money.
Legally this distribution, under the form of exchange and how exchange is still issued and is in the form of exchange and as exchange one thing for another thing, but a simulacrum of money, unlike money or property, nor any other commodity-that is not “at all”.
Therefore, the cost in this case of alienation of goods in “exchange” for a certain amount simulacra of the money the former owner of the goods voluntarily alienating his or in which it alienated (removed) in “exchange” for the simulacra of money, do not receive any goods in return, alienated from him the goods. No equal to its cost amount or in any amount not received.
Economically this is the expropriation (or, in this case, fraudulent robbery, to put it in legal terms), that is, the expropriation without any compensation at all, not to mention equal in value (equivalent) compensation of the expropriated goods.
But, I will say there is the majority of economists and lawyers, not to mention the entrepreneurs and the ordinary people: “How is it “buying” goods from someone, we don’t are expropriating, and a fraud (deception) most of us even and does not imply and does not think, and You talk about expropriation and fraud?”
The answer to this question is simple in essence and at the same time (due to total zahvachennoi absolute majority of the ruling ideology) is extremely complicated.
In fact, no exchange of goods is not, first, there is no fraud on the part of the absolute majority of making this redistribution of goods under the guise of sharing and exchange, and secondly, but there is a redistribution of goods in the third.
And here is something just appears the hardest to understand, by an absolute majority the chain of oposredstvovanii this as if it is independent of redistribution occurring under the guise of sharing and exchange, in the fourth.
The first kagimoto on the surface of society (the closest to a direct participant in any act of redistribution of goods committed under the guise of exchange and how the exchange of commodities, but in reality – ontologically – the last derived and therefore the most superficial in the whole process) posredstvuûŝim link are simulacra of money.
And last kagimoto (in the perception of the direct participants of such transfers, but in reality – ontologically – first) posredstvuûŝim element in any act of distribution and redistribution of goods, posredstvom any simulacra of money and perpetrated under the guise of exchange and how the exchange of commodities, is the highest institutional authority over the process of social reproduction.
Funds and titles of this highest institutional authorities, in the end, are all simulacra of money throughout their global hierarchy.
Between these “extreme” posledstviyami links is a whole system of distribution and redistribution of goods, including their transportation and delivery to consumers, from their direct producers to intermediate and final consumers wholesale and retail, on the one hand.
And on the other hand, the system of distribution and redistribution of simulacra of money (including through fiscal system and budgets of all levels) from the issuers to each of the current owners.
Each of these two systems posledstviya links include far more than one subsystem posledstviya links and not a single chain of intermediaries. With them, one way or another, to a greater or lesser extent (depending on scope of activities), and dealing with consumers of all products and current owners of the relevant simulacra of money.
Private, namely third, the mediation system is another system that specializiruetsya on the definition of simulacra prices. The system itself breaks down into two major subsystems (two major public units) definition of simulacra prices, first, all goods and, secondly, to themselves simulacra of money.
That’s just about that third system posledstviya links, as well as actually functioning in a modern economy and, most importantly, what is natural, necessary and inevitable leads and will lead not only Russia but all of mankind a global financial capital, will be discussed separately in subsequent articles (parts of this article).
(to be continued)
Vladimir Vasiliev, December 2, 2019.
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