Anton Semenovich Makarenko (13 March 1888 — 1 April 1939) — Soviet the teacher-innovator, on my years of experience have traced the process of educating the new man in the workplace, the development of Soviet society and new norms of behavior, the process of accumulation of new moral experience and habits.
Will of our party and destroyed Pedology. Pedology was represented by special direction, the so-called theoretical and pedological thought was a hostile direction with respect not only to our needs but to our honor, and our dedicated work. What is claimed Pedology, and not only for Pedology, but in General pedological direction? Pedological direction was not only in Pedology, it delayed a lot of minds who imagined that no relation to Pedology had not. Pedology tighten even now a lot of minds when formally Pedology does not exist. The main thing that characterizes the Pedology is a certain system of logic. The system is this: it is necessary to examine the child. Studying it, we find something soon, and from what we find will draw conclusions. What are the conclusions? Insights about what this child needs to do.
Here’s the basic logic pedological direction.
Here the working method with the child method of education should be inferred from the study of the child, not just childhood in General, and just childhood in General and of each individual child and the specific type of child. Thus was made the conclusion that because this study should lead us to the different paintings [of the individual], and the method of education must be different. One child was one, it must be so brought up, studied the other — it was different, it needs to raise another, third, also different, and so many children — so many methods.
Pedology found a lot of groups of children and the mentally disabled and socially neglected, and troubled children, and wrongdoers, etc. Hence it is very close to a purely fascist theory that States that between the races there are mental differences that separate races predefined and individual destinies. Naturally, once a separate historical fate, and the method of education of the Germans must be the one the Slavs — the other, blacks are third.
This theory close to the theory of Lombroso, who argued that people are born with criminal tendencies. Pedology in the end could only come to this conclusion that the human nature in the child, the biological picture of his personality and character are such differences, such features, which should lead to a special, separate methods for his training.
I repeat, pedological logic draws not only those people who themselves formally called pedologie, but a lot of people who believe quite honestly that they are not Pedology. Bring pedagogical method of reflexology, from psychology, from experimental psychology, to bring this method from the circumstances of the individual — this is the pedological direction.
You need another logic, which is a method of pedagogy derives from our goals.
We know what should be our citizen, we should know what new people, what qualities this person should be different, what he needs to be the character, belief system, education, health, ability to work, we need to know everything to be different, proud of the new, our, socialist, Communist people.
Once we know that, if we are honest educators, we should strive all the people, all to educate children in the most approaching this to our Communist ideal. That’s where have to start our practical pedagogy. It must come from our political needs and at the same time dialectically critical. It must proceed from the needs of not only the present but the needs of our socialist construction, of the needs of the Communist society.
Suppose they used to say that we need to educate harmonious personality. It was also a goal, but the goal is beyond time and space, is the perfect person, and we need to educate the citizen of the Soviet Union. In our great age we have to educate most full citizen, worthy of this era. From this our sacred goal, the simplest and most practical purposes, we should take the method of education. A knowledge of psychology, knowledge of the child’s soul, the knowledge of each individual can only help us to apply our method is most convenient in one case, somewhat different in another.
A. S. Makarenko Pedagogical works, Volume 7, Pp. 28-29
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