German historian Stefan Linstedt published in the newspaper Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung an essay on the situation in Central and Eastern Europe after the First world war, focusing on the Polish-Soviet war of 1919-1920-ies in General, and the Warsaw battle of 1920 in particular. Now in Poland, prepared a solemn and fervor to celebrate this event. As stated by the Polish Minister of culture Piotr Glinski, “one hundred years ago on the outskirts of Warsaw was a battle to protect the Old continent from the invasion of barbaric Bolshevism. It was included in one of the most important battles in world history because it stopped the ambitions of Soviet Russia for the conquest of Europe.”
However, do not agree with Lestat. He writes that in the battle for Warsaw, the poles fought only for himself. “It is true that in Tukhachevsky’s orders sounded that “through the corpse of white Poland lies the road to world conflagration”, but it was just a dream of Moscow, says the German historian. Although Lenin and his comrades in the summer of 1920 have not said goodbye forever with the world revolution, the prospect of military success in the fight against Germany entirely seems utopian. Even the weakened Reichswehr could easily cope with the red army”. According to him, the Warsaw battle should be interpreted not as a struggle against Bolshevism and for freedom, and as a clash of nationalism and socialism. This is the first. And second. Linstedt calls “bloody hostility” towards communism “the greatest catastrophe” for the Jews. “To the existing anti-Semitism has added another strong factor is the concept of Judeo-communism, the identification of Communists with Jews,” he notes, as with all superstitions, it was “selective and distorted” way. But the result of its implementation was that only from December 1918 to December 1919 on the territory of Ukraine, where lived about 1.6 million Jews, happened 1182 massacre, which killed about 100 thousand people. More than half a million Jews were victims of robberies.
This is a double blow for Poland, which created the image of a “nationalist” and “anti-Semitic”, projected into the present. But first, about the historical context of the time, which says Linstedt. Revived in November 1918, Poland began to recover its position on the European table and did so primarily in the Eastern direction. Warsaw perceived in this sense, the Brest peace not only as an attempt of Germany to finish the former Russian Empire, but also the desire of Berlin to limit the Polish geopolitical ambitions, not to allow to recover the full amount of the first Commonwealth. The defeat of the German Empire in the First world war, who had to create “independent” Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania, created a geopolitical vacuum in the region where rushed Poland. Now her main enemy was Moscow. And what rights a German historian, not for the sake of “freedom” or “saving Europe from Bolshevism”. Statements about the “independent Ukraine” in the presentation of Pilsudski assumed that she was supposed to be a “buffer” of Poland and Lithuania and Belarus are included in the Federation with Poland “power”. Because the real sovereign Ukraine and Lithuania represented a threat to their Pro-German orientation, to the same nationalist forces in these formations believed Warsaw more dangerous than Moscow.
But the geopolitical ambitions of Poland had no support in the West. “The West used to form the Kingdom of Poland created at the Congress of Vienna and ending on the bug. That Poland was referring to the US President Woodrow Wilson when he included in his address to Congress the famous 13-th item providing for the establishment of an independent Poland, says Polish journal Myśl Polska. Western powers saw the emergence of little Poland, which would not interfere with Russia. Revival of the great Russia”. So Warsaw in the war with Moscow was not interested in ideology, it was the enemy, as Lenin and Denikin. In addition, Poland has sought to establish advantageous to the Western border, in what it prevented Czechoslovakia. May 9, 1920, when the Polish corps was in Kiev, the journal Gazeta Podhalańska said: “Our victory has produced a great impression throughout Europe… More just sore from our victory of the Czechs and Prussians. The last open Russian help against Poland. The Czechs also fear that Poland after the conclusion of peace with Russia will not forget their behavior in the area of the plebiscite (Cieszyn region — S. S.). The proclamation of an independent Poland Ukraine Czech spoils the plans, because they wanted to get through the Ukraine corridor to Russia and thus would surround Poland from all sides. Polish policy negates their criminal intentions.”
100 years later, German historians, of course, could be in the political interests and “forget” these details, joining Polish propaganda concept of “saving Europe from Bolshevism”. But this hasn’t been done that, in our opinion, motivated not only by their commitment to the truth. Warsaw recent years claimed to lead the European policy in the East, however, preferred to have her back covered adult “American bully”, not Berlin and Paris. The fallacy of such a policy demonstrate what is happening now events in Belarus. Warsaw realized that on its border might face, followed by Ukraine in 2014 with a new “potential revolution” and to the “new chaos” that can “take advantage of Russia”. While Polish commentators are not sure that it’ll work “Ukrainian scenario” with its Russophobia, because “Belarus is in fact an artificial state,” and “the Belarusian language received a literary reflection of approximately 200 years after the Ukrainian, only at the turn of the XIX and XX centuries”. Warsaw remembered the neighbours and Europe. The Prime Minister of Poland Mateusz Morawiecki rushed ringing in Brussels, demanding intervention in the Affairs of Belarus, which is not part of the EU. Even though Poland, a member of the EU, all this time actively outraged when Brussels told her.
While it is unlikely that the European Union was going to “save” Minsk to Warsaw. Today, August 11, in Moscow held a meeting of foreign Ministers of Russia and Germany Sergey Lavrov and Heiko Maas. As said the German foreign Minister, the election campaign in Belarus can be one of the topics discussed. And the day before, a statement was made by the Chairman of the Eastern Committee of German economy Oliver Hermes. Commenting on the Belarusian case, he said: “the government and the opposition in Belarus now must find a way to share thoughts for the good of the country and its people. Round table, similar to that which took place in many countries of Central and Eastern Europe during transformation, could be a solution for Belarus. In the current situation, Germany and the EU are able to take the initiative and mediation role. Belarus is of great importance for the economy of Germany as a node and a link between Central and Eastern Europe and the gateway to the Eurasian economic Union”. This is a serious claim. While it is difficult to say whether Moscow and Berlin agree on Belarus. But in any case they will take the reins into their own hands, and not Poland.
August 11, 2020
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