Clara Zetkin and Rosa Luxemburg would come to the horror of modern interpretations of International women’s day, celebrating the homemaker.
“Be silent, woman, your day — March 8!” one of the most popular memes on the Internet on the eve of International women’s day. The initiators of the festival — Clara Zetkin and Rosa Luxemburg, who advocated equal rights for the fairer sex from such treatment would come to dread. Horrified by the March 8 and modern feminists, because in this day as never exaggerate the stereotypical image of a “real woman” — a homemaker.
That still today are outraged feminists and what has been achieved to the women’s movement over the past centuries?
In the popular consciousness of feminism has acquired such a rabid stereotypes that eradicating them is not possible even in 2020.
Men-conservatives believe that a feminist is necessarily a man-hater and a lesbian and, of course, immediately raised hell if it gallantly to open the door. In the mouth of the Russian priest, the word “feminist” almost indecent, and was meant by him painted girl with bare Breasts that appear out of place at public events or anti-religious dancing in the Church. And in high-ranking offices of the women’s movement in General appears to be a direct threat demographics: after all, every feminist is necessarily child-free, promoting birth control and abortion.
“Feminists have always hunted, and today, little has changed — sure Julia K., who call themselves kuratomi project to combat gender inequality, “Rib of eve”. Men hate us because we are in danger of losing their power, they don’t want to abandon higher wages, from a respected status in society, from consumer services. Keep the woman on the sidelines beneficial.”
From sometimes repudiate feminism even women.
“In 2010, I was called a feminist, and I said, “Oh, my God, why do you insult me?” — says Alena Popova, a human rights activist and the author of the project about domestic violence. But feminism is far-fetched negative connotations based on stereotypes that the adherents of the movement hate men.”
Reprinted caricatures of feminists discrediting movement in the minds of the layman, however, detract from the merits of its representatives — is unfair. And the modern woman — even a complete skepticism — every day enjoy the rights which made them feminists in the late XIX and early XX century.
For example, study and work, wear pantsuits, vote, lead companies and hold high government posts. Own property, travel alone, decide to marry or divorce and how many children to have.
It seems too much easier — political movement for the full equation of women with men. However, having lived to the present day, feminism is like a sponge, absorbed as much of the meanings that the term slightly eroded. Incidentally, a similar fate of “liberalism” and “democracy”, which are now to the place not to mention place in any dialogue, each time meaning something different.
World history of feminism is full of names and dates, but we just divide it into three waves and explain what does each.
The first wave is called the suffragette movement XIX — early XX century, originated in the UK and the USA. The Central question that solved activist: inequality between men and women in law. The suffragettes fought for women’s access to education, the acquisition of ownership rights and voting rights. Thanks to them, the English Parliament passed laws to improve the status of women and gave them the right to vote in local elections in 1894. After six years, to the vote made women in some American States. Gradually in the twentieth century followed this example and in other countries.
Feminists of the second wave liberal and radical — from the 1960s until the early 1990s did not focus so much on the legislative as on everyday sexism: in the family and at work. They argued that injustice is rooted in social structure, in which social roles are assigned to women and men (the woman, the mistress, the man is the breadwinner). Liberal feminists have tried to convince society that women are no less intelligent and physically advanced than men — to increase the percentage of women in the science labour market and in politics. Radical feminists have proposed to overthrow the Patriarchy and to rebuild society.
In the 1990-ies of the emerging third wave of feminism, with a focus not on legislative and domestic entrapment of women, and stereotypes in the media, the study of gender and sexuality. Feminist theory third wave include elements of queer theory-racism, postcolonial theory, existentialism, transcendentalism, postmodernism, transnationalism, transgender issues, etc.
The many faces of women’s issue
By 2020, was formed approximately 30 FEM-directions, and each in its own way treats the cause of gender inequality and focuses on certain aspects. Tangled is very simple.
So, adherents of Marxist or socialist feminism see the cause of the oppression of women in the institutions of private property and capitalism. Proponents of postcolonial feminism draw attention to the fact that women of the third world experience oppression double the pressure. Separatist feminism requires to create an exclusively female community and institutions. Intersectional feminists believe that sexism is inseparable from other manifestations of discrimination on racial, class lines, health status and sexual orientation.
Lesbian feminism protects the rights of homosexual women, transfeminism the rights of transgender people. And thanks to the pop-feminist ideas of the women’s movement into the mass culture and become known to all.
Ddemokraticheski elected heads of state and governments than 20 women: in Sri Lanka, Argentina, Iceland, Pakistan, Ireland, Finland, Philippines, Germany and Chile. Women gained the possibility of implementation in all fields of professional employment. In Western countries, women are not only highly paid lawyers, managers, scientists, and military, police, defence Ministers and even priests.
In addressing women’s issues, the leaders are the Scandinavian countries: Norway, Sweden and Finland. The system of state benefits, kindergartens, paid parental leave, allowances for training and retraining young mothers allowed women to combine career and family responsibilities.
Conversations about feminism are becoming more common, it becomes a part of the world many women and men. Changing the approach to advertising campaigns, the content of glossy magazines about beauty and fashion and even politics to accentuate the problem of discrimination.
Two shifts and domestic violence
Despite all the achievements of the women’s movement, the problem of gender inequality in the end of the second decade of the XXI century are far from over.
“The situation of women in different countries is very different, says Julia K. — If Iceland’s women demand equal pay, in other parts of the world girls cut off the head of the clitoris or expelled in a separate hut during menstruation. The challenges are different, but the problems are the same.”
Women still earn less than men — reaching the so-called “glass ceiling” in his career. According to the International labour organization, women earn about 20% less than men occupying the same position.
“Despite the demographic majority of women in Russia — the 78 million against 68 million men, their wages are on average 30% less. And this despite the fact that women work in two shifts — don’t forget about unpaid domestic labour, which is considered the default specific to women, — says Alena Popova. — The problem has and unequal political representation: according to the Russian demographic statistics, women should be the majority in the Parliament and the government.”
Another blatant problem — domestic violence. In Russia a third of respondents “Levada-center” has experienced violence in the family or immediate environment, and who is confident that one in three women on the planet have experienced sexual or physical violence.
“We are fighting for basic survival — sure Julia K. — the Problem is recognized, most countries have enacted laws, created protection tools. In Russia, however, this law is not taken for more than twenty years. But the fact that so fired the movement #MeToo condemning sexual harassment in the workplace, business Gracheva and sisters, Khachaturian says that violence is no longer the norm”.
The problem of violence against women is rooted in gender stereotypes — the notorious “tegelevate” allows you to draw around each women clear boundary rules, the cross that should not. So, in Russia, as in many conservative countries, widespread reproductive violence, prescribing the beautiful half of humanity gently follow its “feminine destiny”.
Women shamed relatives: “Well, when the grandchildren wait to get married, why go out?” Shame gynecologists: “your Clock is ticking, staracademy you?”
The Church generally refers to girls living in a civil marriage free prostitutes, and particularly conservative officials in the state Duma and then try to introduce “tax on childlessness” or to ban abortion in the Constitution.
The funny thing is that after birth a woman does not get rid of harassment: be sure to find someone who will show her that she too used to come out and decree a little fed or breast fed — but not there. So, recently employees of the Hermitage said the girl, who decided to give the child the chest on the bench of the Museum (away from visitors) that “it is necessary to sit at home”.
“Can I feed her baby not in the toilet? — asks Zalina Marshenkulova in his Telegram-channel “Female power”. — No, society is offended. Bore — and let’s beat under the hood that you did not see and did not hear from home don’t get out. Do you know why? Because of Patriarchy women did not exist, it is just a function, not a person. First, you poison, you’re not the mother, then that you’re a mother.”
Special discussion deserves the slat-shaming — stigmatization of women for uninhibited sexual behaviour and colourful clothes. This includes viktim-blaming — the prosecution of rape victims is that they somehow behaved “themselves ran”. And recently, activists of the “Male state”, not just convicted for extremism, and made fun of peterburjenki starring in pornographic clip till Lindemann.
“Often people don’t notice as poison for “closest,” writes Zalina Marshenkulova. — Because a woman is obliged to perform its functions, not to be human. There is only a moment between “skin” and “amateru” is the name of her life.”
Despite all the obstacles, the society moves toward equality and will sooner or later come to him. Not least because of the benefits it will bring to all: both psychological and material. So, according to experts of the world Bank, due to unrealized opportunities for women in career and pay inequalities in the country annually lose billions of dollars.
“Evolution can never be overturned, even if the return of a monarchy, and we, as witches, will begin to burn at the stake — it still ricocheted in fundamentalists — sure, Alena Popova. Misogyny too will soon go out of fashion is to present yourself in the topic of humiliation of the struggle for women’s rights will be unprofitable. Even those who call us “pridurochnye femke, which is strange that it is not killed””.
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