Bavarian Nördlingen is a special place.
Bavarian Nördlingen (Nаrdlingen) is radically different from any other locality in the world. It is a medieval city, with a population of 20,000, is situated entirely inside a massive meteorite crater.
This crater called the Ries Nаrdlinger, and it was formed 14.5 million years ago when a meteorite with a diameter of about a kilometer crashed into the Ground. And only less than fifty years ago there was evidence that shed light on the true origin of this city.
For centuries it was believed that the huge hole in which the city is situated, is a volcanic crater. In 1960 two American scientists, Eugene shoemaker (known for the discovery of comet shoemaker-levy) and Edward Chao, proved that the huge hole was actually done by the meteorite. During a visit to the Church in the city of Nördlingen, which was built from local material, the shoemaker was surprised to find that the stones of which the walls are composed of are quartz. The fact that such a breed as quartz is formed under shock pressures, usually caused by a meteorite. Subsequent studies of strange rock formations in the district finally approved researchers in the opinion, the crater caused by the meteorite fall.
There is another crater Steinheim, about 3.8 CMS diameter, located about 42 kilometers West-southwest of the center of Nördlingen. These two craters are believed to have appeared simultaneously after the fall of the double asteroid, which is in the atmosphere, broke into pieces.
Nördlingen (Nördlingen) is one of the three Bavarian towns, completely kept its walls intact. Fortifications were almost all more or less important German cities. But over time they began to interfere with the development of urban economy and the need for them was no more. In varying degrees of integrity admire the ancient walls, towers, gates and bastions in Munich, Nuremberg, Regensburg, and other places.
But only in Rothenburg Ob der Tauber, Dinkelsbühl and Nördlingen ring of medieval city walls remained unbroken. The fortress of nördlingen (Nördlingen) includes 2,600 metres of wall, 5 gates with gate towers, other 11 towers and 2 bastions.
Fourth nördlingen is the only town in Germany with fully intact combat indoor passage (Wehrgang) at the top of the walls. It is possible to walk around the city, not down to earth.
Fifth nördlingen — the birthplace of the legends of German football, Gerd Muller (Gerhard Müller).
It seems to have these five reasons enough not to miss nördlingen (Nördlingen)when travelling through Germany and Bavaria in particular. The area where now is the town of nördlingen, was already inhabited in the times of the Romans and the Alamanni.
There is evidence confirming the existence of the Royal court of the Carolingians “the Nord” in 898, and the trio in 1219, there was conducted a ten-day trade fair, which later became one of the most famous fairs in southern Germany. This helped the city to achieve self-sufficiency.
Being not tied to any feudal castle, the city grew and developed literally in the bowl of the bottom of the meteor crater of Nördlingen, Fig (it. Nördlinger Ries). The status of Imperial town of Nördlingen received in 1215. The inhabitants were tanners, fuller, tinsmiths and winemakers today in memory of them called the streets of old town. 1219 of Nördlingen, has become the center of free trade, the city market. They were selling grain, vegetables, livestock, Handicrafts and wine.
But the 30-year war between Catholics and Protestants, in which were involved other European countries, was brought to this city neischislimye loss. However, the walls of the city in 1634 the Swedes suffered their first defeat of the 30-year war. But nördlingen was not able to recover from the effects have lost their ekonomicheskuyu and political power. The population of the city was onesilos half.
Only in 1939 the city’s population has increased so much that reached the level of 1618, that is about 9,000 people. In respect of development the city has hardly changed over the last 300 years. Until today, fully preserved town wall with towers having a defensive value, and together with other numerous historical buildings of the city, it attracts tourists from all dir in this wonderful medieval city. Along with a tour of the major sights of Nördlingen, everyone who interests medieval architecture and enjoy a walk in the fortifications outside the city ramparts.
Start exploring the Old town with Market square, where you cannot fail to see the”Dancing house” and “High building” – a nine-storey building-tower. Both constructions belong to the XV century. “Dance house” is a three-story, luxurious, outstanding forward half-timbered gable. Previously, it was used mainly by the traders of cloth to the fairs. Square surrounded by houses with modest facades, decorated with a statue of one of the patrons of the city of Kaiser Maximilian I. the Building of the present town hall, which appeared in the XIII century as a trading house for the fair, served with 1382 simultaneously the city hall, and is now one of the oldest town halls in Germany. Richly decorated with stone ornaments of its portal and Renaissance staircase in 1618, which replaced an earlier, wooden one.
Opposite the town hall is the former pawnshop. Currently, there is the tourism office. We find in the Northern part of the square lane Eisengasse and following along it, turn left. On the next square until 1955 was “the house of the furriers and potters”. The distinctive building in front, called the “Klösterle” (monastery) was the Church of a Franciscan monastery. After the reformation it was used as a granary, later a warehouse, and today it is the town hall for big events. Luxurious main portal dates to the time of reconstruction of the building (1586).
Opposite is a so-called “House Kishima”, which in 1278 — 1803 he served as the granary of the Imperial Kishima poorhouse, later it housed the Court of Federal Lands and the district administration, today’s judicial Department.
Area Tändelmarkt (crush) leads us to the alleys and Nonnengasse Manggasse, after which, turn left and crossing the lane Vordere Gerbergasse, leaving the oldest part of the city.
Romantic with a beautiful Gables home tanners left (No 23) and the right (No 2) are witness to the high culture of construction of residential houses masterminding. At the West end of the alley shifted to the right a barn like building”Holzhof” is currently used as a Museum Meteor Crater (Rieskrater-Museum). The Museum with numerous exhibits and informative boards placed in six halls. Here there are also interesting videos about the origin of the solar system and meteor crater, and the visit to the moon with Apollo 16.
At the end of the alley Hintere Gerbergasse begins district Hospital Courtyard, a medieval welfare institutions with economic buildings (bakery, mill, stable, etc.), occupying the territory up to the street Baldingstraße.
Accordingly, the intentions of the founders, the hospital is still today a haven for the elderly and disabled. In the former hospital building houses the municipal Museum, which presents in the documents the history of the town of nördlingen and the history of meteor crater. Especially impressive are scenes of open caves with skulls time of the Mesolithic (C. 6000 BC), the figure of the flutist time of the Romans, situated near Hollimon (Holheim) of the estate of Roman times, the diorama with pewter figurines, reproducing the famous battle of Nördlingen (1634), and typical of late Gothic paintings of Frederick Herline (XV century) and Hans Safeline (XVI century).
Alley between Herrengasse and the river Hebert is a paved space leading down to the river, for bathing horses (Rosswette). Lane Herrengasse goes to the Weinmarkt square, where the fountain Maria-Holl-Brunnen in memory of the brave innkeeper stood 56 severe torture during the persecution of heretics in 1589-96 and survivors. As a result of the persecution of heretics here, then killed 35 innocent.
Powerful, similar to the pavilion (Hallgebäude) building 1543 was once a warehouse for salt, wine and grain. In the alley Neubaugasse y impressive half-timbered buildings, houses Winters, we turn into the alley Bräugasse and walked a bit, then again turn left into the open lane. Thus, we come to the Church the Lord’s Body (Herrgottskirche) or SV.Sebastian. It was consecrated in 1442 as a collegiate Church, but in 1829, has undergone great changes. Its attractions are the figures of the saints in the soffit (towards the bottom surface of an arch, vault, beams, eaves and) West portal wall painting, the main altar, reliefs in the pews and the painting “the Miracle of the Sacrament”. All the above refers to the XV century.
Lane Basteigasse leads us to the ramparts of the City with old ramparts, which now serve as stage scenery for the ongoing submissions. Go along the wall to the gate Reimlinger Tor, and then by the house of Ellinger, once thermogenisis of the Teutonic order and the streets Reimlinger Straße Shäfflesmarkt and sent a shortcut to the Church. George.
Its tower “Daniel” with a height of 90 m a lighthouse. This Church, one of the great South German hall churches, completed in 1505, and stores the Baroque main altar, decorated with late Gothic sculpture late Gothic baptismal font.
He who wants heights “Daniel” to look at nördlingen and its surroundings, must overcome the 350 steps of the tower. Every half hour from 22 o’clock till midnight, the watcher on the tower shouts out of the medieval password “So, C sell, so!”, so telling the citizens that he was on duty.
Climbing the stone spiral staircase to the tower, you can see the old speed wheel with which the sentinel on duty looking out over the city, including if there’s anything where’s the fire, lifted himself to the tower a basket of food.
From Nördlingen, leading in Harburg (17 km) road 25 can pass (a pointer — a detour of 15 km) to the urban area of Holheim (the cave and the manor of the time of the Romans) and on to the “Garden of Christ” (Christengarten, the smallest municipality in Bavaria, the Gothic choir of the Carthusian). And then through the village Mönchsdeggingen (Benedictine monastery, a Baroque Church with the authority 1693) go back to the way To 25. The second possible excursion for a visit to the small town of Wemding, 17 km East of Nördlingen. Attractions are its Market square, city fortification, the parish Church and close to pilgrimage Church of “Maria
Brünnlein” in Rococo style. One of the roads South of Its leads directly to the Harburg.
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