Tens of millions of Kazakhstani tenge loses agricultural science due to the bad practice of paying royalties (the royalties) breeders who create new varieties of crops. Given that the state scientists will nedofinansiruetsja, they have no incentive to work. At this time, the demand for quality seeds in the domestic market of Kazakhstan is increasingly closed to Russian manufacturers.
At the beginning of the season, the scientists of the Kazakh agrotechnical University. Seifullin checked 15 seed-growing farms operating in the four major grain regions of the country – Kostanay, Akmola, North Kazakhstan and Karaganda regions. The situation has been disappointing, writes Forbes.kz. Was taken from 72 thousand tons of seeds intended for sowing the area of 600 thousand hectares. Analyzed the seeds of wheat and barley – those crops, which today constitute the main export celgosivir of the country.
– Moreover, we investigated the seeds of class elite and first-reproduction, – said Vladimir Kiyan, PhD, head of the scientific-research platform of KazNTU. That is, the best, the idea is that the material. In all tested samples revealed the presence of fungal diseases, Alternaria and Fusarium. Literarios reduces the yield by 30%, and Fusarium – up to 60%. And, no matter will appear of these illnesses on adult plants. Even the contamination of the seeds themselves does not allow to fully develop shoots. That is, you sow seems to be an elite wheat and seedlings will receive only 20 to 30% of normal.
Among other diseases of seeds identified in the studied regions – Helminthosporium (root rot) and bacteriosis. Depending on the disease type and conditions of development of plants, losses can range from 30 to 70% of the potential harvest volume. Plus, seriously affecting the quality of the grain, and the price for it. Some diseases, such as Fusarium, lead to accumulation in the grain of the toxins and pose a danger to people and animals.
As a result, many Kazakh farmers are now looking for seeds abroad. They were not satisfied with the supply of domestic seed growers in quality seed material or the genetic potential of existing varieties. For example, because all of climate change is increasing the demand for varieties of wheat resistant to fungal diseases. Also, many farmers give priority to more early maturing types to be able to complete the harvest before the arrival of cold weather.
– Seed production in the country now, we can say, no, – admitted Anatoly Pereguda, head of the farm “agro-Duman” (Karaganda region). – We decided to sow one of the fields elite in the future to form its own seed Fund. To the choice went seriously: he took a different farms, including in semihazah, corn on the tests – germination, germination. And found that in many cases the quality of these seeds was even worse than our commodity grain! In the end, after a long search we chose the farm in the Akmola region and bought them seeds of varieties of “Astana”. He suited us.
Many never find in Kazakhstan are satisfied with their options and looking for the seeds abroad. Although it is not the best way – there is always a risk that narayanaswamy varieties will not be able to show its full potential in the new climate conditions.
The money issue
Kazakhstani plant breeders a good tradition, said Bauyrzhan bride-price, the Director of the Karaganda agricultural experimental station. Alexander Khristenko. And the scientist on the shoulder to face new challenges – in the availability of financial support. However, this is precisely the problem. Since the outdated material and technical base and lack of necessary equipment (laboratories, seed-cleaning line), to inability to stimulate the scientists themselves.
With colleagues agree Damir Kaldybayev, Director of karabalykskaya ACES (Kostanay region). According to him, if for full funding of scientific work at the station must be at least 75 million tenge per year, in 2019 allocated a total of 26 million
Support the work of breeders could provide seed farms which are now using the original seeds to obtain material for sale. However, one of the breeding centers of the country, who can boast of obtaining royalties from farms using original seeds, is SPC of grain farming them. Kazakhstan (Akmola region). Its CEO Kenzhe Abdullayev at a briefing in mid-April reported that the practice of concluding agreements on the payment of the license fee to the authors of the varieties was restored three years ago. During this period, it was concluded 32 contracts, contributions amounted to 23 million tenge in 2016, 47 million in 2017, 27 million in 2018. Under current law, the authors participated in creating the class, paid 30% of Compostela funds.
The transition period
However, the question of payment of royalty is not as simple continued the theme Damir Kaldybayev. The fact is that due to the already mentioned problems with financing on new varieties and subsequent cultivation for sale of the super elite is engaged in a limited number of scientists. Other centers just replicate what was created 30 years ago.
– Here we need to note that the first task of the agrarian science – to implement the production of new varieties, explained Damir Kaldybayev. But the fact is that now on the market are mainly represented by seeds of the old selection. And they are not in demand. Many farms are now looking for a modern, more productive varieties that produce more yield and provide better grain quality. Looking for them often in Russia – we feel the competition of the scientific centers of Kurgan, Omsk. So in this situation to raise the issue of royalties in time. Yes, there is a Law “About protection of selection achievements”, based on which we can try through the court to force someone to make payments for the use of our varieties. But it will be wrong. Instead, we must come to something to release at least one new class every three to four years. This will allow to obtain funds to maintain the interest of scientists to selection.
To change the situation, karabalykskaya ACES this season began a program of cartoony. Within four years, the station plans to withdraw completely from seed of the old selection and replace them with new, highly demanded in the market. And such is. For example, wheat varieties “Ayna” and “Fantasy”. While they are produced in a small volume, but behind them all lined up before the current planting season. By the way, the price was 150 thousand tenge per ton of the super elite, whereas the old varieties – 120 thousand tenge. Still, the peasants made a choice in favor of new products.
– This year we have replaced 900 hectares “of Karabalyk-90” to “Fantasy”, – said Damir Kaldybayev. This is a very good grade, which shows the yields of 2-3 tons per vectorwise predecessor. Also part of the steam fields planted our flagship – grade “Ayna”, resistant to diseases. In the future, “Omsk 36” we will replace the “Severyanochka”, and in 2021 will start to introduce the “Standar 90”, which is now undergoing state tests. This variety has exclusively grain quality, gluten comes to 38%.
Stretch sottomenu for a few years, make technological features. Namely, the new variety can be sown only after one field season rested fallow. If you do not withstand this time period, the new crop would get mixed because of volunteers. This will reduce the quality of seed and will cause complaints of peasants. In addition, the admixture of old seeds will lead to contamination of diseases and new – this is the problem that the scientists KazATU. S. Seifullin during your studies.
In parallel with these research centers start working and royalty payments. Contracts with seed farms, which purposefully take classes high seeds (super-elite and elite) to their fields multiply them, then selling commodity farms of the seeds of 1st and 2nd reproduction. The percentage of the royalty set is different, depending on what seeds are purchased. On average, 3%.
– The demand for new varieties is high, so questions about royalties did not arise, all are willing to pay, – said Vladimir Chudinov, Deputy Director of karabalykskaya ACES. – Interest payments must occur within three months, yet it was not. But some of the seeds we have acquired commercial farms and the royalty amount was immediately laid in the price. So managed to get уже2 million tenge. The mechanism of their spending, we define, but, of course, mostly they will go to pay copyright collectives that created these varieties.
Karaganda ACES them. Alexander Khristenko also going this year to begin working with the seed, acquiring the original seeds for further reproduction. Such partners at the station several.
– The seed ready for it, – said Baurzhan bride-price. – Understand that buying have good seeds, they will get higher yields. Therefore, we need to work more actively, to offer some new items, to meet the demand. Otherwise, in fact, our farmers will be their money to support science abroad, but not in Kazakhstan. Because of royalties they have to pay and Russian breeders.
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