October 29, 1937, in a terrible “night of the executed poets”, the NKVD killed more than one hundred representatives of the intellectual elite of the BSSR writers, statesmen, scientists. Today we remember them — and walk the streets, named in honor of their executioners. Tell about whom exactly there is a speech.
The organizers of the repression and their students
Let’s start with Felix Dzerzhinsky, who was born in the ancestral estate of Dzerzhinovo (located 15 kilometres from city settlement Ivenets of Volozhin district). His father, Edmund Dzerzhinsky, from Ashmyany.
It would seem that Felix is the founder and first head of the Cheka (later NKVD, KGB) — he died in 1926, and the peak of mass repressions in 1937-1938 came To him Iron Felix did not survive. But the red terror, which was carried out by the Bolsheviks during the Civil war, took place under the leadership of Dzerzhinsky.
In any case, Iron Felix was one of the originators of the Soviet repressive machine. It is when it is in the security services came to dominate the class principle, which was erected in the absolute during the Great terror. So, Dzerzhinsky responsible for it.
However, it’s Dzerzhinsky put into practice his “disciples.” In Minsk there is a street named in honour of the head of the BSSR Nikolay Gikalo (1932-1937).
In Gikalo was a fabricated case about the mythical “Belarusian national center”. Later, the participants were rehabilitated. Unfortunately, most of them posthumously.
In 1937, while working in Ukraine, Gikalo actively participated in mass repression.
— Is tentatively scheduled two thousand shot, four thousand to the expulsion. The specified number is considered kulaks and criminals on each user ends the selection and design of the actual material. The line of the NKVD there is an indication to include in operation and other categories of the active counterrevolutionary element. The Troika will now begin its consideration of the cases considered, this cryptogram about Stalin signed it Gikalo.
“To shoot 3 thousand people as the most hostile”
In the organization of repression was noted and the other leaders of the Byelorussian SSR: Vasily Sharangovich (1937) and Panteleimon Ponomarenko (1938-1947).
In the Russian state archive of socio-political history stored encryption Sharangovich, sent to Moscow. He offered “to shoot 3 thousand people as the most hostile and active counter-revolutionary work and send from outside Belarus 9800 less active, but hostile elements.” In a bitter twist of fate or someone’s strange intent, Sharangovich street intersects with the street of Maxim Gorki, the classic of Belarusian literature, which became a victim of Stalinist repression.
Joseph Stalin, Vladimir Lenin, Mikhail Kalinin. Photo: wikimedia.org
The document, which was signed by Sharangovich, are the signatures of seven members of the Politburo. Including Mikhail Kalinin, after whom in Minsk called square, street and alley.
By the way, Kalinin signed a decree of the CEC and CPC of the USSR “On amendments to the existing criminal procedure codes of Union republics”, which played an important role in the organization and legal support of mass repressions.
Investigation and consideration of cases on “terrorist organizations and terrorist acts against workers of the Soviet power” (all or almost all of them were fabricated) was envisaged to end within ten days. The indictment handed to accused one day before the case in court. To listen to the case without the participation of the parties. Not to allow the appeal of verdicts and the submission of applications for clemency. To carry out the sentence immediately into execution.
Panteleimon Ponomarenko. Photo: wikimedia.org
As for Ponomarenko, he also signed the encryption, in which he asked Stalin to increase the number of repressed in the BSSR to the first category (shot).
“In respect of Yanka Kupala has 41 indication, most direct; Yakub Kolas… 31 indication; Nettle… 12 testimony, and so on. The quantity and quality of incriminating material, as well as on the facts known to us of their work, they are certainly subject to arrest and trial as enemies of the people. In particular, the Commissariat of Belarus has requested from the center a warrant for the arrest of Kupala and Kolas for a long time, but authorization is not given,” wrote Ponomarenko to Stalin. The classics of Belarusian literature were saved by a miracle.
The creators of the BSSR, which it was not needed
Wilhelm Knorin. Photo: lkrkrp.narod.ru
In different years, Wilhelm Knorin , and Alexander Myasnikov were the leaders of the Bolsheviks were behind the formation of the Byelorussian SSR in different years was headed by the Communist party of Bolsheviks of Belarus. It would seem that the butchers died tragically in the 1920s, and Knorin he was shot.
But the Belarusian statehood was a stranger to these people. Butchers and Knorin were opposed to independence or even autonomy of Belarus.
“We thought that Belarusians are a separate nation and that those ethnographic features which separate them from the rest of Russian should be eradicated. Our objective is not the creation of new Nations and the destruction of the old national slingshots,” wrote Knorin in 1918. The creation of the BSSR he butchers agreed only on the orders of Moscow.
Alexander Myasnikov. Photo: wikipedia.org
In addition, when Knorin was drenched in blood Slutsk uprising, which was put before itself the purpose to restore the BNR. Call the street in independent Belarus in honor of the people that independence was not necessary, too much honor.
The same can be said about Carl Lander, who headed the Minsk Soviet of workers ‘and soldiers’ deputies, and later organized the Red terror in the don region and Northern Caucasus.
In other lands mentioned, and the commander Jerome Uborevich, who had suppressed the peasant uprising in Tambov. He also fought against the enemies of the Soviet power in Belarus.
However, the mentioned “heroes” at least lived in the country. But Yakov Sverdlov came to Minsk only in 1919 — to declare the elimination of the Byelorussian SSR and the creation of Litbel, a common state of Belarus and Lithuania. Isidor Lyubimov, another head of the Minsk Soviet of workers ‘and soldiers’ deputies, was in Minsk for six months in 1917.
Yakov Sverdlov. Photo: wikipedia.org
Revolutionary V. Volodarsky (with name and point looks his alias) had nothing to do with Belarus. But in Petrograd, he closed the opposition Newspapers.
Strangers for Belarus were members of the Politburo Valerian Kuibyshev and Sergey Kirov. From the latest in the years of perestroika made hardly probable not the main opposition, but in reality both pursued a course of Stalin in life.
The revolution continues?
Photo: Vadim Zamirouski, TUT.BY
Let’s not argue. The Soviet period is a serious part of Belarusian history. Forget about it is impossible to completely refuse too.
But in practice, it turns solid discrimination or bias. In Minsk there is a street Communist, Revolutionary, October, International, Komsomol, Soviet, Park named after 50 anniversary of Great October…
Very strange to walk down the street Pulihova, named in honor of the terrorist who tried to kill the life of Minsk Governor Kurlov. The latter was not an angel, his conscience — “karlovsky execution” of 1905, when tsarist troops and police fired on the rally. But to cultivate violence is unlikely.
Finally, hard to forget, and leaders of the world proletariat. I agree, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels really great thinkers, the works of which study in all universities in the world. But why not to recall the outstanding thinkers-liberals or conservatives? But Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht, who tried to realize their ideas in practice and to make a revolution in Germany? What attitude they had towards Belarus?
Lenin still alive
A separate discussion of Vladimir Lenin, who only once was in the territory of Belarus, and then travel. He was in its territory and, if they could stop, except at the local station during a train stop. Without exaggeration — this is a great man. We say more — a genius who changed the history of mankind. Here only in what party?
Between the two world wars Poland, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, which, like Belarus, was part of the Russian Empire, created their national States, has secured a dominant position of national languages, have kept and introduced into the mass consciousness of the institution of private property. And still I avoided the peak of mass repressions (encountered them later) and collectivization (that is why the local population kept the market thinking). Therefore, after the collapse of the socialist camp, they had to restore independence.
In the aftermath of the October revolution, Belarus was forced to build a nation-state almost from scratch and to go through the stages of development that the neighbors were held before the Second world war. It’s probably still too high a price to name in honor of the leader of the two streets Ulyanovsk and Lenin. And in honor of his associates — other highway.
To sum up. In urban toponymy it is necessary to represent all political trends (not only Communist) and historical periods (and not only Soviet). If this is not possible, it’s time to rename “Communist preserve”.
So at least it did in Molodechno. In the early 1990s, when the mayor of the city was Gennady Karpenko, reminders of the USSR disappeared from the city streets. In 2009, the Karl Marx Prospekt Polotsk became the Skarina prospect. However, Lenin and Engels streets in the city remained.
I want to believe that example, Molodechno will sooner or later be followed in other cities.
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