The infamous period from 1930 to 1950-ies in the history of the Soviet Union are inscribed in bloody ink.
October 1, 1930 was established the GULAG – the chief Administration of camps. Throughout all the republics of the USSR, the GULAG was a network of labor camps in which during the period 1930-1953. visited by about 6.5 million people. Unable to withstand the inhuman conditions there died about 1.6 million people.
Prisoners didn’t just served their time – their work was used for the benefit of the Soviet Union and was seen as an economic resource. Gulag prisoners, was the construction of a number of industrial and transport objects. With the death of the “leader of all peoples” Stalin Gulag camps at a fast enough rate began to abolish it. The survivors sought rather to leave the place of his imprisonment, the camps were deserted and dilapidated, and the project was abandoned so many human lives quickly fell into decay. But the map of the former Soviet Union still face-to-face encounter with evidence of that era.
The former camp, located near the city of Perm. Currently, this correctional labour colony of strict regime for those convicted of “especially dangerous state crimes” turned into a Museum – Memorial Museum of political repression history “Perm-36”. Barracks, towers, alarm facilities and utilities was here restored and recreated.
The Solovetsky special purpose camp (SLON) was the first and most famous camp in the Soviet Union. It was located in the White sea, in the archipelago of the Solovetsky Islands and quickly became a symbol of the repressive system. The ELEPHANT ended up in 1937, over 20 years later Solovki passed tens of thousands of prisoners. In addition to “political” to the archipelago EN masse deported common criminals and clergy. Now the island is the monastery, which in recent years was carefully restored.
The Dneprovsky mine
The Dneprovsky mine is located on the Kolyma river, just three hundred kilometers from Magadan. When in the 20-ies of XX century on the Kolyma found rich deposits of gold, here have begun to exile prisoners. In sub-zero weather (in winter the thermometer dropped below $ 50 With) “traitors” was mined at this mine the tin with picks, crowbars and shovels. In addition to Soviet citizens in the camp were also Finnish, Japanese, Greeks, Hungarians, and Serbs.
The construction of the railway along the Arctic circle, Salekhard-Igarka was one of the most ambitious projects of the Gulag. The idea belonged to Stalin himself:”we Must take up the North, North Siberia undisguised, and the political situation is very dangerous.” Despite the tough weather conditions: extreme cold and swamps infested with mosquitoes, the road was built rapidly – starting construction in 1947, and by 1953 were built 800 km of the projected 1482 km In 1953 after Stalin’s death it was decided to preserve the building. Throughout it was left abandoned locomotives, empty barracks and thousands of dead builders from among the prisoners.
Camp “Vasilyevka” in the Aldan district was one of the largest. Five thousand people, sentenced to 25 years in criminal and political charges have been busy here on the extraction of monazite (a mineral containing uranium-235) and logging. A distinctive feature of the camp was hard, even for camps Lugage, discipline: the attempt to escape of prisoners sentenced to the Supreme penalty – death. The inmates lived in complete isolation from the outside world, as they were denied even the right to correspondence. In the former territory of the camp, officially closed the 54th year, has installed two crosses in memory of the victims of Stalinist repression.
Camp “Stvor” on the banks of the Chusovaya river in 20 km from the town of Chusovoy appeared in late 1942. By prisoners on the river were to grow Ponessa HPP. Thousands of people, mainly convicts on the notorious 58th article, cleared the bed of the future reservoir, chopped wood and coal was mined from the mines. Hundreds died, unable to withstand the hectic pace of work – HPP was planned to build in just two years. But in 1944, all work was preserved – the dam was never built. Towards the end of the great Patriotic war and after its completion, the camp became a “screening”. This sent the soldiers who passed through the Nazi prisoner.
Base camp, the site of the eponymous village, located on a river blank’va where to send the deportees from the Baltic republics. It is noteworthy that until 1941, the year they were not considered political prisoners, and had the status “temporarily moved”. In Surmore sat many famous representatives of the social democratic and democratic parties, members of the government of Latvia. Among them G. Landau, a famous journalist, activist of the cadet party of Latvia and B. Khariton, the father of the “father of the atomic bomb” J. Chariton, editor of the Riga newspaper “Segodnya”. Now in the place of the camp is a penal colony.
Camp in the mountains Tarutao
Salavat system of camps of the Gulag in Bashkiria included 10 camps, and camp in the mountains Tarutao was the worst of them all. The prisoners were numb from horror only in one of its mention. Three thousand prisoners, and shackles, which never took off, was mined here and burned limestone. Mountain water flooded the barracks of the prisoners, turning their life to hell, and people die not only from hunger, cold and disease, but also killing each other. They were buried there, far away from the mining of limestone. In may 1953, the camp was abolished, but apparently, surviving to this day prisoners by that time was quite a bit.
The Karaganda corrective labor camp is one of the largest camps existed from 1930 to 1959 and was subordinate to the Gulag of the NKVD of the USSR. There were seven separate settlements with the European population – more than 20 thousand people. Currently in the former administration building of the camps Karlag in Dolinka is a Museum of memory of victims of political repression.
Road of bones
The infamous abandoned trail leading from Magadan to Yakutsk. The road began in 1932. Tens of thousands of people involved in laying the track and died there, were buried directly under the road. For this reason, the tract was called “road of bones”. Camp along the road called mile markers. Only through the “road of bones” was about 800 thousand people. With the construction of Federal highway “Kolyma” the old Kolyma highway fell into disrepair, and today is deserted.
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