Cemetery of priests and other finds.
For quite some time in Egyptology was dominated by serenity, but this time seems to have ended. In recent months, was made more exciting discoveries related to this extinct culture than in the last few decades. Tiny socks, the new Sphinx, the huge ruins and tombs – and it’s not all open, which will allow to learn more about the ancient Egyptians and the mysteries of their civilization.
1. The Sphinx is made of Sandstone
Near Aswan is the ancient temple of Kom Ombo which is studied for many years. When 16 September 2018 archaeologists carried out work to remove groundwater in the temple, they discovered a mysterious statue of a Sphinx made of Sandstone. Unlike the more famous Sphinx of Giza, this sculpture was only 28 inches in width (at pedestal base). However, this opening was just awesome.
Despite the intervening millennia, the Sphinx has been preserved in excellent condition. Two months before the opening of the statue, in the same part of the building were found two Sandstone relief with a depiction of king Ptolemy V. Therefore, scientists have suggested that the sculpture dates back to the Ptolemaic dynasty (305-30 BC), although its purpose remains unknown. Once the sphinxes were used as guardians of tombs, and they often depicted the person of the Pharaoh.
Archaeologists hope that the face of the Sphinx Sandstone is a picture of one of the rulers of the Ptolemaic dynasty. If future studies confirm this, intact facial features of the statue can show how looked the Pharaoh.
2. A massive ritual structure
Founded around 3100 BC, the ancient Egyptian city of Memphis is located 20 kilometers South of modern Cairo. It was the house of the ruler Menes, who United Upper and Lower Egypt into a single, powerful state. Part of Memphis was excavated in the modern city of Mit-Rahina. In 2018, the archaeologists who worked in the Mit-Rahina discovered something very remarkable – a massive building, which is adjacent to another smaller building with a large Roman bath and a room inside. According to archaeologists, the structure was probably used for religious ceremonies.
3. The cemetery of the priests
In the excavations of tuna El-Gebel always find something interesting. But only in 2018 here found a huge underground cemetery age 2300 years. According to experts, for the full excavation of the entire necropolis can take up to five years. At the moment it was found 40 stone sarcophagi, many of which rested the remains of the priests. This special group worshipped the God Thoth, which, according to Egyptian mythology, has given mankind the art of writing.
In the study of the mummified remains of one person, scientists have suggested that he was the high priest. In an ornate coffin in particular stood out one item – an amulet with an inscription on it. letter. After deciphering the hieroglyphs, it was found that the inscription “happy New year”. In addition to extensive collections of ceramics, jewelry and other artifacts in the underground cemetery also found more than 1,000 statues, ushabti. These tiny figures, as suggested by scientists today, was the “helpers” people in the afterlife, instead of them doing different jobs.
4. Disease Dakhla
In the Egyptian oasis of Dakhla buried 1087 the remains of the ancient Egyptians. When scientists studied them in 2018, in six cases it was found that a person during his life was sick with cancer. In particular, were found the remains of a child with leukemia, men with rectal tumors, and several people who could hurt cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Although cancer is not a new disease, and HPV even older people, it was interesting to compare the situation with the current.
Like today, HPV the ancient Egyptians in Dakhla was circulated among young people aged twenty to thirty years. Although the disease has not genetically confirm bone lesions suggested that HPV was transmitted and developed among ancient populations is exactly the same as in the current days. Statistics also suggested that the chances of developing cancer today in Western societies is about 100 times greater than at the time when these people were buried (3000 – 1500 years ago). Naturally, the Egyptians didn’t know what it is, was not given any specific treatment other than relief of obvious symptoms such as skin ulceration and pain.
5. Striped socks
Following an ancient artifact looks like its tied a week ago. Once this sock belonged to the Egyptian child. It was made around 300 ad, but its almost never used (the sock was found in an ancient garbage dump). However, for the British Museum, the find was very valuable, because the experts had the opportunity to learn about the ancient methods of dyeing and weaving used for the manufacture of clothing.
There was only one little problem – all of the available methods required the destruction of all or a sock or a part thereof. Only in 2018, the Museum specialists have received non-invasive method of research. Using scanning, they found that the colors of the stripes of the sock was collected from three natural dyes. Madder was used to create red dye, woad blue, and RESEDA yellow. The scan also provided an opportunity to understand what methods of weaving.
6. The village with the silage pits
Long before the pharaohs and the construction of the pyramids near the Nile river was built by the village. When it was discovered in 2018, it turned out that this is one of the most ancient settlements in the Nile Delta. This unnamed place had already existed for more than 2000 years before the first hieroglyphics. In the ruins of 7000 year old settlements also found a deep vault, which contained a huge number of remains of plants and bones of animals.
More detailed information about these waste products may lead to an understanding of how to develop agriculture in Egypt. This village, located about 140 kilometers North of modern Cairo, is the mystery – why this place was abandoned. The village has existed for 2000 years, but deserted two centuries later, after Egypt had been United by an unknown Pharaoh.
7. The black sarcophagus
In 2018 in the media around the world, the news of the black granite sarcophagus found in Alexandria. The sarcophagus weighed 30 tons, and its cover was able to remove only with the help of the Egyptian military. Scientists thought they’d find the remains of an important person, perhaps even Alexander the great. But inside discovered three mummies, floating in a mysterious sticky red stinking fluid. It was a banal modern waste water, which is mixed with the remains.
In the study of the Trinity buried, it has been suggested that they were soldiers. In one skull there were wounds from arrows. But the theory that it was military officers collapsed when it turned out that one body belonged to a young woman. Except for the Royal families, the women never were in the military in Ancient Egypt. All of the bodies date back to the early period of the age of the Ptolemies, which started in the year 323 BC. They seem to have been buried at different times. The mystery surrounding the identities of three of the mummies have not yet been solved.
8. The lost oasis
Place of bir Umm Tinagba, which was discovered in the Egyptian desert Elkab, what was once not at all interesting for archaeologists. But in 2018 arrived Yale researchers, armed with advanced technologies, everything changed dramatically. It turned out that bir Umm Tinagba was once the ancient centre, after which people left graffiti, art, tombs and buildings. Local rock art dates from the era before characters (about 3300 BC) and represents exceptional examples of early Egyptian drawings.
The images resemble those that were found in the Nile valley, suggesting that these two populations were mixed with each other. The possible opening of the hybrid groups may change how archeologists address the evolution of the Egyptian population. Among several burial mounds the most remarkable was the burial of a young Egyptian. Luxury and expensive items buried with her, were proof that this place had ties with the red sea region. South of the rock art, and graves later found an unknown Roman settlement Dating back to 400-600 BC.
9. The mystery of mummification
Experts know a lot about the ancient Egyptians, but no one now alive knows how to turn someone into a mummy. In 2018, was made the discovery, can at least partially lift the veil of mystery – in the necropolis of Sakkara in the Nile Delta unearthed a workshop for embalming. Inside there were five mummies, and found another 35 were found in the surrounding necropolis. They all date back to 664-404 years BC. The study findings showed that the mummification was not something available, and it could afford only the elite. But the greatest excitement was caused by instruments left in the workshop.
Researchers already knew that the embalming took 70 days, and began with washing the body, removal of the internal organs and drying the body for 40 days. Before you wrap the body in canvas, it is treated with oils. It is the type, quantity and use of the oils were absolutely unknown to modern scientists. To their delight, in the workshop found a measuring Cup with traces of these mysterious oils. Through chemical test it will be possible to determine exactly what substances were used and maybe it will help solve the mystery of the whole process.
10. Pits full of severed hands
Not every ancient Egyptian find is a Golden mask or a beautiful painting. Sometimes discoveries seem to be terrible. In 2017, the Egyptologists working on the excavation of ruins of Avaris, found four pits, two of which were located in the ruins of the throne room. They found 16 human hands, severed 3600 years ago. All hands were right, and belonged to the men (judging by their huge size).
An eerie sight confirmed the practice, documented in hieroglyphs is to cut off the hand of a defeated enemy and sell it. Experts believe that the ancient Egyptian nobles bought the hands of the enemies of his soldiers, and then ritually buried them. Although it is difficult to say who owns these hands, you know that their age dates back to the time when the Egyptian army finally “knocked out” from the country of the Hyksos peoples who conquered Egypt in 1650 BC.
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