Getting acquainted with the report on the budget of the USSR, the reader Willy-nilly begins to dismantle the pride of the Soviet Union. Passed some five years after the deadly, destructive war that had claimed millions of lives of Soviet citizens, and the country found the strength to recover. Recently, the German bombs leveled to the ground entire towns, and now they are raised from the ruins, there is a restored industrial enterprises, built many brand new, in the cities, established infrastructure and a peaceful life. The same happened in the Soviet countryside. Many burned their was a fascist hand, much of the population deported into captivity, how many were exported machinery, grain, livestock, etc. But also the village most of the indicators restored.
The Soviet Union is not dragging out a miserable existence, he is built, he is developing rapidly. Rise of new factories, state farms, hydroelectric power stations, bridges, houses, increasing the welfare of workers, annually planning, reduced prices! Like a fairy tale? Indeed, looking at today’s stagnant Russia, the Soviet Union seems like a beautiful tale.
The Soviet budget revenue mainly consists of revenue of the socialist and cooperative enterprises, the monopoly of internal and external trade does not clear up the speculators and intermediaries, banks in the Soviet Union long ago lost its commercial function and in the hands of the workers ‘ state has turned into a payment processing centers. Taxes from the population account for only 8.4% of the total budget.
And the rest, including about the problems, tells the newspaper “Pravda” No. 166 of 1950
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ON THE STATE BUDGET OF THE USSR IN 1950 AND ABOUT THE EXECUTION OF THE STATE BUDGET OF THE USSR IN 1948 AND 1949
A supplementary report of the CHAIRMAN of the BUDGET Committee of the Council of NATIONALITIES of the DEPUTY I. S. KHOKHLOVA
Comrade deputies! Budget the Commission considered the report on execution of the State budget of the USSR in 1948, the report on execution of the State budget of the USSR for 1949 and the State budget of the USSR in 1950 and presents its conclusions to the Council of Nationalities.
Execution of the State budget of the USSR in 1948 and 1949 took place in conditions when our socialist economy in its development not only reached pre-war levels but significantly surpassed this level. Industrial production by the end of 1949 exceeded the level of scheduled five-year plan in 1950; the gross harvest of grain crops has almost reached the level envisaged in 1950. The rapid rise of industry and agriculture, the growth of national income of our country has secured the welfare of the Soviet people.
As a result, the steady execution of the instructions of comrade Stalin about the sequential decline in prices for all goods have increased significantly the real wages of workers and employees and increased the income of farmers. In this regard, raised the purchasing power of the ruble, increased rate against a foreign currency, the Soviet ruble became the most stable and full-fledged currency in the world.
All of these conditions have had a favourable impact on budget execution. State budget of the USSR in 1948, the made income in the amount of 410,5 billion rubles and expenditures — in the amount of 370,9 billion rubles, with a surplus of income over expenditure 39.6 billion. The state budget of the USSR in 1949 made income in the amount of 437.0 billion rubles and expenditures — in the amount 412,3 billion rubles, with a surplus of income over expenditure 24.7 billion.
In 1949 the greatly improved performance of the budgets of the Union republics. Fully complied with its budgets, income and expenditure of the RSFSR, the Ukrainian SSR, the Byelorussian SSR, Kazakh SSR, Georgian SSR, Azerbaijan SSR. The Moldavian SSR, Latvian SSR, Tajik SSR, Armenian SSR, Estonian SSR and the Lithuanian SSR.
Provision for the financing of the national economy, constituting the main article in the expenditures of the State budget of the USSR, used as in 1948, and in 1949. However, a separate Ministry underutilized allotted them funds, particularly for capital construction. Not fully mastered in 1919 the appropriation for capital construction the Ministry of petroleum and metallurgical industries.
In some ministries there are serious deficiencies in the implementation of the plan of commissioning of new enterprises. So on the coal industry of the capital master plan in 1949 was fulfilled by 100,2 per cent., a plan for commissioning of new objects, only 66.6 percent. The construction of several projects was delayed. A number of mines under construction for many years.
The Ministry of industry of construction materials sprayed appropriations for capital construction. For example, in a cement plant “Proletariy” allocations were sprayed on 60 targets, at the Lipetsk plant of sewer pipes — to 29 objects on the Stalingrad factory building parts for 35 objects. This led to the fact that the plan for commissioning new facilities in 1949, the Ministry has completed just 41.3 percent.
The party and the government release more funds for capital construction and require that those funds are spent correctly and with the greatest benefit for the country. The speedy commissioning of new enterprises enriches the country and strengthens its power.
Much attention our government pays housing. As known, in the 1946-1949 years, state enterprises, institutions and local Councils and the population via the state-built and restored homes with a total area of over 72 million sq. m. in addition, in rural areas and 2.3 million houses.
In 1949, many ministries and local Councils have made significant strides in housing construction. However, some ministries do not provide execution plan of housing construction. For example, the Ministry of forestry and paper industry fulfilled the plan for the construction of housing only 83.9 percent. Enterprises of this Ministry, feeling the need for living space for the workers, did not use the available features of the deployment of individual housing construction. The credits allotted for this purpose was developed in 1948, only to 55.4 per cent in 1949 to 60 percent.
Insufficient attention was paid to housing and also the Ministry of power. For Kizelovskaya SDPP housing plan made in the past year by 57 per cent., a plan for commissioning of new living space – by 48.2 percent. At the Yuzhno-Kuzbasskaya GRES implementation of the housing plan were 67.4%, and the plan of commissioning of new living space – a total of 30.1 percent.
A serious drawback in the use of the budget is incomplete utilization of the provision for social and cultural activities. In 1949 this provision was not used by 2.7%. This was due mainly to a failure to plan the deployment of a network of new and insufficient use of existing institutions of education and health.
The most poorly developed appropriations for social and cultural activities in the Uzbek SSR. In 1948 the Republic was not used 6.8%. and in 1949 – 6 percent. funds appropriated for these purposes.
The councils of Ministers of Union republics, some do not pay enough attention to the business of the organization and content of children’s institutions. In the Belarusian Soviet socialist Republic in 1948, the plan was to serve kindergartens 13.295 children, in fact, the gardens were 9.664 children. In the Moldavian SSR underutilized in the maintenance of orphanages 11.2 million.
On the State budget of the Soviet Union annually allocates significant funds for construction of schools. However, these tools are not always used fully. For example, in the Ukrainian SSR in 1948, the funds allotted for the construction of city schools, was used to 90.8 percent. and for the construction of rural schools at 74.5 percent. In the Azerbaijan SSR appropriation for the construction of institutions of public education was used by 71 percent. We must demand from Councils of Ministers of Union republics to pay more attention to school construction.
The cost of maintenance of state bodies in 1948, and in 1949 was less than budgeted. However, there are opportunities to obtain much greater savings in these costs. It is necessary to eliminate the violation of budget and staff discipline allowed many more agencies and organizations.
In 1949, when testing the 34 enterprises of the Ministry of Railways revealed 557 supernumerary employees at the administrative office. When you check 7 enterprises of the Ministries of chemical industry identified 227 supernumerary workers.Such violations are many. It is necessary to strengthen financial discipline in the budgetary and economic organizations, to improve internal control.
The internal control supplied is still unsatisfactory. For example, the Ministry of food and 25 of the main control in 1949 fulfilled the audit plan only 10 main offices.
Materials of audit are used poorly. Audit Prokop tobacco factory, the Chisinau tobacco factory and tobacco factory Leningrad decisions were taken by the Ministry only after 6 months after the end of the audit.
With the satisfactory execution of the State budget of the USSR in 1948 and 1949 in all, the plan income for separate articles remained unfinished. Shortfalls in revenues the caused mainly by the reduction of state retail prices for consumer goods and part of the revenue shortfall due to the shortcomings in the work of individual ministries.
The Ministry of meat and dairy industry were given in the budget for the turnover tax and deductions from profits in 1948 to 5.7 billion in 1949 to 7.5 billion rubles, the Ministry devoted insufficient attention to expanding the range and improving the quality of products and poor organized marketing of their products. At the enterprises of the Ministry were admitted to large losses from mismanagement.
The Ministry of fisheries were given in the budget for the turnover tax and deductions from profits in 1948 to about 1.6 billion rubles., and in 1949 — 600 million RUB Unproductive expenditures and losses at the enterprises of the Ministry over the 1949 rose. The loss of fish beyond the limits reached enormous proportions.
These serious shortcomings saying that the Minister of meat and dairy industry comrade. Kuzmin and Minister of fisheries tov. Hares did not show the proper requirements to his subordinates and does not provide the necessary control over the work of enterprises.
The work of financial bodies in 1948 and 1949, has improved somewhat. However, in the local bodies of the Ministry of Finance there are serious weaknesses in the collection of the rural payments and observance of the state discipline. Not ensure timely supply of agricultural tax and insurance payments, allowed significant arrears.
In some cases, financial workers violate the tax laws. In the Byelorussian SSR, Uzbek SSR and Tajik SSR revealed facts of unauthorized withdrawal of financial workers agricultural tax, misuse of benefits and other violations.
The Ministry of Finance should take measures to eliminate such violations, and to strengthen public financial discipline among workers.
Budget Commission proposes to approve the report on execution of the State budget of the USSR in 1948 and 1949 in the amounts taken by the Government.
Comrade deputies! The state budget of the USSR of 1950, prepared in accordance with the national economic plan of the fifth year of the post-war Stalinist five-year plan and provides the necessary means to further the development of the socialist economy and culture, the welfare of the people and strengthening the power of the Soviet state.
The budget for 1950 is set by the Government on income in the amount of 432,0 billion rubles and expenditures — in the amount 427,9 billion rubles, with a surplus of income over expenditure 4.1 billion.
The budget of our state is strong and stable budget, as it relies on the fast growing socialist economy. The main part of budget revenues comes from state and cooperative enterprises and organizations, while tax payments of the population is only 8.4 percent. income budget.
The State budget in 1950 to direct: the national economy — RUB 164,4 billion, or 38.4 percent. all funds budget; socio-cultural events — of 120.7 billion roubles, or 28.2 percent. Thus, two-thirds of the budget go to the further development of the national economy and cultural development.
Costs estimates of Military and Naval ministries remains at the level of last year, a total of 79.4 billion roubles, or 18.5 per cent., while, for example, U.S. military spending in 1950-51, it was the financial year will amount to 76 percent of the total budget.
The US budget is a pronounced military budget. The budget of the Soviet Union is the budget of peace-building, reflecting on the peaceful policy of our Bolshevik party and the Soviet government, under the leadership of the great leader, comrade Stalin. (Loud applause).
The budgets of the Union republics in 1950 is scheduled in the amount of 96.6 billion rubles., of which on the national economy and socio-cultural activities directed 86.4 billion rubles, or almost 90 percent. all of the tools.
The Federal Republic during day to day care of the party and the government, on the basis of the Stalinist friendship of peoples, fraternal cooperation and mutual aid has made great strides in economic and cultural development. These successes are especially striking compared with the situation in some bordering on the Soviet Union capitalist countries, particularly in Iran and Turkey. These States remain backward agrarian countries, most of their population illiterate. Are illiterate in Iran, about 85 percent. people, I in Turkey — about 66 percent.
The rise of the economy and the flourishing of culture of all Soviet republics is a direct result of the Leninist-Stalinist national policy of our party and the Soviet government.
Comrade deputies! Budget Commission proposes to approve the State budget of the USSR in 1950 in the amounts provided by the Council of Ministers of the USSR, with the following amendments of the Budget Committee:
the turnover tax on 733,0 million RUB,
deductions from profits to 236,1 million RUB,
the tax on buildings at 50.0 mln.,
payment of the Main state insurance 6.0 million RUB
income from state property to a 100.0 million.
It is therefore proposed to increase the income of 1.125,1 million.
The proposed amendments to the turnover tax, the deductions from profits and other income attributable to the refinement of production plans and implementation of certain types of goods and the refinement of the calculations based on the reported data for 1949 and the first quarter of 1950.
Newly identified revenues in the amount of 1.125,1 mln. Budget the Commission proposes to direct the excess of income over expenditures of the State budget of the USSR.
Comrade deputies! The most important condition for the successful implementation of the State budget of the USSR is the persistent struggle of all enterprises, economic organizations of all workers for further disclosure and use of reserves, existing in a socialist economy.
“No five-year plan, says comrade Stalin, may not consider all of the possibilities that lurk in the bowels of our building and are open only during the work in progress at the factory, the factory, the farm, the farm, in the area; etc.” (Stalin, CIT., volume 12. 347).
Last year, thanks to the inexhaustible creative activity of the Soviet people support the party and the government of the all new, advanced, progressive, has made great strides in mobilizing internal resources. The industry has developed a large number of additional products and gave over the plan a significant amount of income to the State budget.
In this success played a major role persistent introduction at the enterprises of advanced technology, improving the level of mechanization of labor-intensive processes, the introduction of new, more sophisticated types of equipment and high-performance technological processes.
Very important was the improved utilization of fixed and current assets. At the enterprises of the Ministry of metallurgical industry, the use of useful volume of blast furnaces in 1949, have improved against 1948 at 6 per cent., but against 1940 — 18 percent. Eat steel from one square meter of hearth open-hearth furnaces increased from 1948 to 11 per cent., as compared with 1940 by 21 percent. Enterprises of the Ministry in 1949 significantly exceeded the plan of savings made in the budget over the plan in excess of 4 billion.
Light industry has given in the past year, the excess savings 1.252 million RUB At the enterprises of light industry greatly improved the use of production space and equipment and accelerated turnover of inventory. Used in light industry, new technological methods allowed us to save a large quantity of valuable raw materials. Launched at the Moscow factory “Paris Commune” at the Patriotic initiative of the foreman in Korabelnikova socialist competition for comprehensive savings in materials applied in many businesses and every month gives you all the great results.
It would however be wrong to see in these successes and shortcomings. We have enterprises whose leaders are continuing the struggle for the mobilization of internal reserves. For example, managers of trusts “Lenles”, “Kotlasles” Ministry of forestry and paper industry is extremely insufficient use in the past year at their disposal mechanisms, tractors and vehicles. As a result, the cost of the work performed in a mechanized way, exceeded the cost of non-mechanized work than was caused by losses to the state.
With some improvement of results of work of MTS in 1949, the leaders of many machine and tractor stations of the Ministry of agriculture made a large downtime of tractors and has not complied with the established norms on a tractor. Leaders of a number of machine and tractor stations had violated financial discipline. Released at their disposal the funds were misappropriated. So, from funds released by the fuel expended not on purpose RUB 51 million and from the funds appropriated for the salary — workers- 19.7 million rubles.
Individual businesses instead of saving to allow for the over-expenditure of raw materials. So, for example, Assembly office of the trust “Artemshahtostroy” overdrawn in 1949 429 tonnes of long products of iron and admitted the cost of construction and installation works on 592 thousand rubles. In the tobacco industry, the loss of raw materials in the production of cigarettes was 0.5 percent. above normal. Enterprise Glucosuria in the production of canned overdrawn 4000 tons of tomatoes.
Still lack of combat losses in the national economy. Losses from defective products at the enterprises of the Ministry of automobile and tractor industry has made over the past year many tens of millions of rubles. On the local industry of the Union republics of the loss of marriage amounted to 40.4 mln. rubles, losses from lower grade product — 19, 8 million rbl. the unproductive expenditure of 26.6 million.
Big losses in the trading network. Only product loss by major trading firms exceeded RUB 1.1 billion due to big losses and other shortcomings of many trade organizations is not systematically carry out plans for savings and payments to the budget.
The Bolshevik party teaches us that our successes, the scope of our movement forward, to a large extent depend on how strongly we are fighting with them. The first duty of all heads of enterprises and economic organizations is the eradication of faults, an uncompromising attitude towards him, raising the Bolshevik demands at work.
Budget the Commission considers it necessary to focus on the issue of use of vehicles in the country. At the third session of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR raised the issue and drew attention of the Ministry on the need to improve the use of vehicles. Since then, the fleet has increased significantly. Large car industry have, in particular, the Ministry of procurement and food industry. Meanwhile, on the issue of the Ministry has not made the proper conclusions from the criticism at the third session of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, did not take the necessary measures to restore proper order in the road transport sector, owing to what is currently the car Park is used by absolutely unsatisfactory: the Ministry of blanks — only 40 per cent., and in the Ministry of the food industry by 50 percent.
We must demand from the ministries and agencies restore order in the fleet, improving vehicle usage, pay special attention to the establishment of a well equipped auto repair companies for improving the care of vehicles.
Comrade deputies! The state budget of the USSR in 1950 is the largest value in the implementation of the fifth year of the post-war Stalinist five-year plan. The implementation of the State budget is a matter not only of financial, but of all ministries, local Councils, businesses and organizations.
Necessary to struggle for the performance indicators of the national economic plan and on that basis, not only to fulfill, but surpass the revenues of the State budget. You need to ensure the strictest economy in the expenditure of public funds.
Every opportunity for successful implementation of the State budget are available. Nationwide socialist competition has become an unprecedented scale. Steadily growing Stalinist army leaders of industry, transport, agriculture, innovators, Heroes of Socialist Labor, Stalin prize winner. Continuously multiplying labor feats on all fronts of our great construction projects in all sectors of the economy, technology, science.
The Soviet people, closely United around the party of Lenin and Stalin, our beloved leader and teacher, comrade Stalin, confidently goes forward to communism! (Stormy, prolonged applause).
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