In the next publication of the column “Better to read” we are considering one of the articles of the newspaper Pravda on 17 January, 1949, issue, which tells us about the plan for the electrification of the country, its outcomes, successes and failures.
“The village of tsarist Russia electricity had not. In the country before the October revolution there were only 80 rural stations with a capacity of about 2,000 kilowatts. All of them were built in the country estates. The beginning of rural electrification in Russia marked the Soviet regime.
In 1920, when our people with weapons in hands defended the young Soviet Republic against the whites and foreign interventionists, at the suggestion of Vladimir Lenin specially created State Commission for electrification of Russia (GOELRO) was developed the plan of electrification of the country. This plan was approved by the VIII all-Russian s departure Boards. Lenin’s GOELRO plan provided for the priority use of electrical energy for industrial development. Lenin believed that the electrification of the village can be carried out when there is a powerful socialist industry and agriculture from small, fragmented into large, collective agricultural production.
Developing a cooperative plan of Lenin, comrade Stalin said: “it is Necessary, finally, carrying out the plan of electrification, as a means of rapprochement between the village to the city and destroy the antithesis between them” (Soch., vol. 7. p. 157).
Already in the years of Stalin’s first five-year plans began electrification of agriculture. But especially large scale electrification of the village Soviet had received after the implementation of the collectivization of agriculture. Prior to the war, in 1940, electricity was used 10.000 2.500 collective farms and machine and tractor stations.
The treacherous attack of fascist Germany on our country was not only arrested further development of rural electrification, but also caused it great damage. During the war, was destroyed rural power plants and transformer substations with a total capacity of over 75 thousand kilowatts. In areas that were distant from the front, the construction of rural power plants continued during the war.
In the postwar period, the electrification of the village has become widespread. In conversation with the correspondent of “Pravda” the Minister of agriculture of the USSR tov. I. A. benedictov said:
The government has recognized the rural electrification a matter of great national importance. In February 1945, Stalin signed a decree of the Sovnarkom of the USSR “About the development of rural electrification”, which established a broad program of construction of small hydropower plants. This decision played a huge role. For the year it was built 601 of the rural hydroelectric power station, electricity about 2,500 679 collective farms and machine-tractor workshops. By January 1, 1946, the rural power installations reached pre-war levels.
Many power plants were built in 1946-1947. The capacity of the rural power stations and installations by 1 January 1948 compared with prewar has doubled. In the past year in the development of rural electrification progress. According to incomplete statistics, for 1948 into operation introduced 3.250 power plants. Current received of 6,000 agricultural cooperatives and 800 MTS. Collective farms, state farms and MTS installed about 15 thousand engines.
The initiator of national movement on a continuous electrification of the farms was the Sverdlovsk oblast. There have already been completed electrification of all collective farms, MTS and state farms. Power rural stations and installations amounted to 45 thousand kilowatts. Now electrified 2.083 farm, 10 farms, and 84 machine-tractor stations, established 6.500 electric motors. Electricity is conducted in 138 thousand houses of farmers, 2.000 rural schools, 600 hospitals and clinics, approximately 1,000 rural clubs and reading rooms. Electrified 9.000 livestock farms and about two thousand collective-farm workshops and forges. In the harvesting campaign on the fields of the farms of the Sverdlovsk region worked more than 1,500 electrified threshing points. In the villages there are about 500 sound cinemas and hundreds of radios.
Great progress in rural electrification achieved the Moscow region. The Moscow Committee of the party on a daily basis in charge of this important work, having a collective specific assistance. In the electrification of villages in Moscow region are attended by more than 500 industrial enterprises. As a result, during the years 1946-1947 there was electrified 2,500 farms, completed the electrification of all machine and tractor stations and workshops. Greatly exceeded the scope and the plan established in 1948. In 22 districts implemented a continuous electrification of all agricultural cooperatives.
The postwar five-year plan provides for an unprecedented scale of construction of rural power plants. The main task is to be completed by the end of the five-year plan the electrification of the machine and tractor stations, machinery and tractor workshops, farms, breeding and testing stations, and electrify tens of thousands of farms. The rural electrical power needs to be dramatically increased. The main source of electricity should be hydro.
Attaching great importance to the development of electrification of agriculture, as an important means of raising labor productivity in collective farms, state farms and machine and tractor stations and pod EMA of the cultural level of the rural population, the Council of Ministers of the USSR in the resolution from may 29, 1948, established a program of construction of rural power plants in 1948-1950 years. The decree specifies that electricity must be used primarily for production needs: workshops, machine and tractor stations, threshing, cleaning, sorting, drying and grinding grain, irrigation, water supply, armoricaine, milking and shearing, and the processing of agricultural products.
Now in agriculture is nearly 60 thousand electric motors. By the end of the five year plan there should be several hundred thousand. Experience has shown that electrification of labor-intensive production processes significantly reduces the time for agricultural work in the collective farms, contributes to the strengthening of the social economy, the growth of culture and well-being of farmers.
This year, the construction of rural power plants must be deployed even more widely. Have to build several thousand stations. A significant part of them is planned to introduce into operation the same year. Needs electricity to thousands of farms in 1.380 machine and tractor stations.
The program is large. The success of it largely depends on how accurately and promptly, will lead this important state matter local party and Soviet organizations. This is clearly says the example of Moscow, Sverdlovsk and other regions. Necessary, unfortunately, to note that there are still many republics and regions, where the party and Soviet organizations do not pay enough attention to rural electrification. To them primarily include the Ivanovo, Kaluga, Penza, Ulyanovsk region, Chuvash ASSR and other regions and republics. Should significantly improve its work, the Ministry of agriculture of the USSR and its General Directorate of electrification, is directly responsible for the state and the construction of rural electrical installations.
Growing Ob’em of construction of rural power PREV is the increased requirements on our industry. She must fully satisfy the demand of the rural electrification hardware and electrical materials. Meanwhile here until all is well. In some places, for example, power plants cannot be started up because of lack of generators. Not paying enough attention to rural electrification, local industry. She has established truly manufacture even such a simple, but very necessary items like rollers, cartridges, switches, etc.
The Bolshevik party and the Soviet government and comrade Stalin personally have a collective of great help in the implementation of the electrification plan. It is necessary for the Bolsheviks to make use of this assistance in order to expedite the matter of electrification of the village collective and transfer production to a new, even more advanced machinery. To this end, our country created all conditions, all possibilities.”
Microwave and the international space station, the Internet and TV: all these achievements of humanity today have become commonplace. Routine is impossible without electricity. Of course, such inventions Lenin in the early twentieth century did not know, but he saw the transformative power carries with it electricity in industry, in agriculture, in everyday life. Lenin decided to pave the shortest way to the future for our country through electrification.
As we can see from the article, the establishment of the dictatorship of the proletariat has become the necessary condition that allowed Soviet Russia and then the USSR, in a short time to go from semi-agrarian to an industrial superpower. No wonder the formula of Lenin stated that “communism is Soviet power plus electrification of the whole country.” This formula is true by the fact that electrification was not possible in those years without the Soviet government and the Soviet government could not have retained their positions without electrification.
The implementation of the master plan Lenin went forward by leaps and bounds, despite the heavy social, political and economic conditions, and the GOELRO plan was fulfilled.
“The plan for electrification was completed on the main indicators already minimum period for which it was designed (1931). Annual electricity production in the USSR reached 10.7 billion kWh, the installed capacity of district power plants — 2105 MW. By 1935 electrification plan was significantly exceeded in all major indicators. Power district power plants amounted to 4.34 million kW in 1935, 2.5 times more than the electrification plan, and the total volume of industrial production increased against 1913 5.7 times is 1.8—2 times the plan. The GOELRO plan was overfulfilled for the extraction of coal, oil, peat, iron and manganese ore, production of iron and steel.
From 1947, the Soviet Union occupies the 1st place in Europe and 2nd in the world in production of electricity.
Great Soviet encyclopedia, 3rd ed.“
It is important for Marxists, the problem was solved by the electrification of the village, along with collectivization. It can be divided into two stages:
1. The convergence of the village to the city;
2. The destruction of the antithesis between town and village.
That is one of the hallmarks of a Communist society.
Unprecedented global experiment – the Great October socialist revolution was not completed, but despite all the garbage, poured on the Soviet Union the bourgeois power, from him we inherited a great legacy. A significant part of it put under the hammer “effective” managers, the national heritage moved into the private pockets of the oligarchs, however, the case of electrification, industrialization, collectivization and cultural revolution of Lenin and the Stalin years continues to pay dividends, which do not allow Russia to slide back into the category of “colonial” countries.
To list all the progressive initiatives of the Soviet government, which we still use, not enough paper and ink, but comes to mind: gasification, prophylactic medical examination, vaccination, education (primary, secondary and tertiary) and all this was done in the interests of the majority of the population. Such tasks could formulate and solve only the power of workers, which is at the forefront and set the maximum satisfaction of the constantly growing material and cultural needs of society, not profit… Capitalism provides a Paradise on earth only to the elite rich, so human labor is no alternative but socialism.
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