Passion for caves left by man since ancient times.
Throughout the history of civilization we dug into the earth in search of a safe place: primitive dugouts of the past, the medieval underground city, the modern bunkers and mysterious, buried for two hundred meters into the cities, where tonight it just ghosts.
In the Cappadocia scattered a few small underground settlements Derinkuyu but significantly stands out among all others. Archeologists date this labyrinthine complex of the VIII century before Christ. Underground Derinkuyu goes down by as much as 18 levels. In this refuge the fugitives had no fear of a long siege — a completely self-sufficient metropolis could exist without supplies from the surface. Surprisingly, a huge structure was found only in 1960, though quite by accident.
In the North of France, there is another underground city. About five kilometers of tunnels and about 400 individual dwellings are hidden 50 meters below the wooded plateau. In the third century ad the Romans came in a quarry. In Medieval times the abandoned quarry was extended to the local people: while constant wars and wandering throughout Europe mercenaries this cache was a must. Caves Naur can hold up to three thousand people who were able to lead a normal life in the city was a private chapel, stables, wells and bakeries.
The Wieliczka salt mine
For seven centuries, from the XIII to the XX people have developed this gigantic salt mine, Procopius deeper into the bowels of the earth. Cleaned levels are adjusted and upgraded, so in the end mine turned into a real underground Palace in as many as 7 tiers. The maximum depth reaches 200 meters, and tunnels of the Wieliczka stretch by as much as 300 kilometers.
In XII-XIII centuries, Ethiopia was ruled by a series Sagwa, well known to Europeans thanks to the one and only king. Gebre Meskel Lalibela, the people were called saints for restraint in food and truly Imperial ambition. The journey to Jerusalem was struck by an African ruler to the core — returning home, he began to build an exact copy of the Eternal city. Of course, the Holy sepulchre was not here, but under the Lalibela went into the depths of the earth extensive catacombs.
Located in the hilltop town of Orvieto famous for its white wines and beautiful architecture. However, the main attractions are hidden under the ground. Dig mazes first began in this area since the ancient Etruscans. For many centuries men have expanded and improved underground shelter until he turned it into a real city.
This is probably the world’s most famous underground city. Strictly speaking, formally Peter called underground not because it was famous for temples was carved by the skillful architects directly into the rock. The city was built on the crossroads of caravan routes and prospered until the cunning Romans showed the local tribes more convenient and safe trade routes on water.
Fast forward from the dusty past to relatively recent times. The cold war (which threatened at any moment to become the most that neither is hot) has led to the emergence of a mass escape underground — bunkers were built even in Australia. Special center Burlington, was right under Corsham: the earth is intended to save the most important parliamentarians. In this case Britain skimp did not. In the late 1950 complex for 4,000 people (offices, cafe, telephone exchange, hospitals, and even a BBC Studio) was ready. Dismantled Burlington in 2004 alone.
In 1960-70-ies the threat of nuclear war was for China is very real. Under the capital decided to build a giant shelter. In fact, the definition of his giant would be rather an understatement: million Chinese could live here six months without experiencing any problems with the food and cramped quarters. There’s even a cinema with an ice rink was!
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