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The mystery of the construction of the idols of Easter island revealed

Тайна постройки истуканов с острова Пасхи раскрытаAll the statues originally stood not straight.

The giant 13-ton stone hat, painted red, appeared on the heads of the statues on Easter island due about the same platform system and a sling, which the Europeans used to raise sunken ships, say scientists in an article published in the Journal of Archaeological Science.

“We were the first to systematically use all possible hints and evidence on how these giant hats could be in the head even more heavy statues. All this is made possible by combining the methods of archeology, physics and computer modeling,” said Carl Lipo (Carl Lipo), an anthropologist from the University Binghamton (USA).

Easter island is one of the most mysterious places on Earth, where about two thousand years ago there was a bizarre civilization of the Polynesians, who left behind numerous traces in the form of giant statues-moai, which, as scientists believe today, represent the deified figures of the ancestors and relatives of the ancient inhabitants of the island.

This civilization had virtually disappeared from the face of Easter island before the arrival of man, the causes of which are considered to be two things — resource depletion as a result of predatory destruction of forests and animals the Polynesians, and the consequent war between different tribes of natives.
Complete disappearance of the moai culture and her native language does not allow archaeologists to solve one of the most interesting mysteries of this island — both in the minds of some of the idols, untouched by vandals and time, was a giant stone hats, the so-called Puka, whose weight is often up to a dozen tons?

This mystery further complicated by the fact that the idols and their “hats” made of different volcanic rocks. Their deposits are in fact located on the opposite ends of the island, remote from each other and from the coast, where there are existing moai, for tens of kilometers. Therefore, the delivery of materials to the construction site of graven images, and their connection was very challenging.

Lipo and his colleagues found the answer to this question, indicating a large enough “advancement” of the inhabitants of Easter island, analyzing the artifacts found in the vicinity of the statues and the quarries where they were mined of their “body” and “hats” as well as three-dimensional models of the statues themselves.

It tells Lipo, his team drew attention to the fact that the manner of transportation and the statues, and their hats on such a big distance had to be reflected in what damage is present on their surface. For example, if the statues were dragged on a soft ground or carried on the “backups”, at the bottom or on the back had to remain typical scratches and scuffs.

On the other hand, are “pedestals” idols of the surrounding area must also save or traces of processing hats and statues if they were made on the spot, or you can specify that the first was heads, second. After analyzing all the possible evidence of this kind, archaeologists found the answer to this riddle, which does not require the mass felling of forests and participation of the entire population of the island in the construction of one of the statues.

As noted by scholars, the statue was carved from the rock in such a way that they themselves were upright, if they were tilted at a slight angle. This allowed us to move them “steps”, just as the owners of refrigerators or heavy tables moved them to a new location. Such “walking” statues allowed the inhabitants of Easter island to move them over long distances without spending any resources other than their own forces.
Judging by the pattern of scratches, hats statues were moved to the place of their assemblies in a partially finished form, allowed ancient artists to literally “roll” them off the side of the mountain, where the quarry. When harvesting, Puka reach the idol, the wizard was completed it was placed on the statue’s head, using the ingenious but simple system recovery.

It consisted of sloping hills, composed of sand and gravel and ropes, which the ancient inhabitants of Easter island wrapped around the hat of the statue and tied to the head of the statue. Pulling the free end, they have raised ten-ton Puka, to the top of the hill, where his hat turned to the side and seated on the main part of the monument.

In favor of this, as noted, Lipo and his colleagues, says a lot of things — the tracks of such slides from the row of fallen statues, and the seizure of unusual forms in the “hat” that did not allow her to slip off the heads of idols.

In addition, scientists noticed that all the statues originally stood not straight, but tilted at a certain angle relative to the surface of the Earth. This allowed the ancient masters to roll, Puka on the head of a moai without damaging the two parts of the statue, and then “leveling” the finished image, removing part of the stones from the back of the pedestal.

All this, according to the researchers, suggests that for the successful completion of the monumental “buildings of the era of despotism” did not have to have countless army of slaves, workers and vast resources, as in Ancient Egypt or China, it is believed by many historians before. A handful of residents of Easter island managed to perpetuate his name, using his intelligence, the laws of physics and scarce mineral resources of the island.

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