Our world in the most incredible cards.
In different historical periods map was created not only for practical purposes, sometimes they become real works of art. Maps drawn by hand is very time consuming and expensive, were sold mainly for personal libraries. But it sometimes happened that the cards created exclusively for practical purposes, it turned out very beautiful and original.
1. The Planisphere Of Aratus. The construction of celestial orbits
This decorative copper engraving, hand-coloured, shows a Planisphere of Aratus, reflecting his structure theory of celestial orbits. Aratus – a Greek poet and astronomer of the third century, who studied the constellations and celestial phenomena. On the map the Land is in the center of the universe and the Sun and the Moon move around it. On the edge of the sphere depicts the 12 Zodiac signs and their human images, and on the field – the main Greek gods and goddesses.
A map published in 1660, was a specimen of the engraving art. This planisphere is included in the Atlas “Harmonia Macrocosmica”, (Harmony of the macrocosm), by the German mathematician and astrologer Andreas Cellarius, each of the cards in this stunningly beautiful.
2. New Atlas of the Ottoman Empire
This unusual satin, hand painted, printed in 1803 during the reign of Selim III, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. It was the first known printed Atlas in the Arab world, executed with the use of cartography in the European style. Earlier maps were drawn manually. For a better safety of the Atlas was printed not on paper but on fabric. There are only 50 copies of this Atlas, one of them was kept by the Sultan, and the rest – from high-level officials.
New Atlas fits in the reforms conducted in the Ottoman Empire Selim III, based on the experience of European countries. However, during the revolt of the Janissaries against the reforms of Selim III, many of them were burned, and now preserved only 14 of them. In the beginning of 2016 in Norway, in one of the libraries was accidentally discovered 15-th instance.
3. A fantastic map of Samarkand
This map of Samarkand, a powerful city in the desert where the Sultan ruled the country, was created using Photoshop and Illustrator. Its author – a famous fantasy artist from Austria Robert Altbauer. The drawings he created for computer games and as illustrations for science fiction novels. The style of the inscriptions suggests that they were made in Arabic.
4. Map of magic island
This map of 1918 shows the island, which incorporates the subjects of many myths and fairy tales, mostly British, but also Greek and German. It is possible to find the Kingdom of Oberon from a Midsummer night’s Dream, the grave of King Arthur, the mountain where the bird movement builds its nest, the house of little red riding hood and Tom thumb, mount Monsalvat, where the Grail, and the ship of Ulysses. It is possible that at the end of the first world war, for many this magic land where even such dangerous creatures, like dragons, looked peaceful, seemed saving place.
5. Plan new York for the Duke
In 1664 the town of New Amsterdam belonged to the Dutch, was captured by the British and named it new York after the Duke of York. Plan of the city, commonly called “the Duke”, is one of the earliest hand-drawn plans in new York, and to this day one of the most attractive. It depicts the town in 1661, but in 1964 it was decorated with English warships and British flags. This plan was presented to the Duke of York who later became king James I. Decorated with cupids, he represents Lower Manhattan, a green Paradise on the shoreline, located near long island.
6. Cheonhado, “map of the celestial world”
The circular “map of the celestial world,” Cheonhado, was developed in the 17th century in Korea. The world map included in the Atlas, written in Korea about the year 1800. The map shows a large internal continent surrounded by the sea. It symbolizes China and the surrounding land. Here you can see Beijing, the Yellow river, the Great wall of China. In the center is mount Meru. In Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism it is considered sacred, the center of spiritual life and the abode of Brahma. The rest of the country, regardless of their size and geographical position, located around China and mount Meru.
7. Map of the County Yongying in China
This map was created in China between 1734 and 1779 years, it shows the river system of the County Yongying. Unlike most Western cards, this South is located at the top and North at the bottom. The map is drawn on the silk using fine lines and decorated in calm, subdued colours.
8. The Belgian lion
In 1583 Michael Eizinger inspired by lions, which are very often used in heraldry, drew a map depicting the Netherlands, Luxembourg and Belgium as a lion and named it the Belgian lion. This card marked the beginning of a new trend in cartography.
9. Geological studies of the valley of the Mississippi river
In 1944, Harold Norman Fisk, Professor of Geology, has published a report consisting of 15 cards changes of the Mississippi river over time. They look like abstract paintings, slightly reminiscent of muscle tissue or strip of candy, and show a complex history of evolution of the river channel. Studies preceding the appearance of these cards is no less impressive than themselves. Fisk and his team have studied about 16,000 soil samples from various locations around the river and compared them with images taken when shooting from above.
10. The Piri Reis Map
The mysterious geographic map, created in 1513 by Turkish Admiral and cartographer Piri-Flight, still gives rise to disputes. Stunning is the fact that this map shows the exact outlines of South America and North America, Antarctica and other lands in the XVI century was still unknown. Particularly striking Antarctica, ice the outline of her fully correspond to those obtained by scientists in the 50-ies of the XIX century. Where could know about it, the Ottoman Admiral?
Card Japanese student, Kisaburo Ohara established in 1904 at the beginning of the Russo-Japanese war. For Russia it is shown in the form of an octopus trying to strangle the whole of Asia and most of Europe. Finland, Poland, the Crimea and the Balkans is already dead and is represented by skulls, while Turkey, Persia and Tibet firmly under control. Each country shows how people in national costume. One of the tentacles of the octopus pulls Korea and Port Arthur, ready to strangle them. Earlier, Russia was depicted as an octopus, reaching Asia, but this was the first where it was shown that Europe is in danger.
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