Island with a harsh temper.
There is something incredibly attractive in land appearing on the horizon in the middle of the vast ocean.
The island, surrounded by hundreds of kilometers of water, always generate in my head fantasies about the treasures of the great mysteries and new discoveries.
The story of the inhabitants of the distant Islands is also not less interesting and original, because for centuries these civilizations developed in a deep relationship with the world around her and in almost complete isolation from other cultures and peoples.
Sounds impossible, but researchers today are still able to experience the exhilarating feeling of touching new lands like Christopher Columbus, and ahead of us a lot.
Rockall (Rockall) can hardly be called an island in the usual sense, because it is not so much land, how much is granite rock covered with bird droppings. Rising above the water 18 meters, technically it is the most westerly point of the UK. Rockall is 465 miles off the coast of England and in 710 kilometers from Iceland.
Despite its remote location, this volcanic island was known even North of the ancient peoples, and they called him Rocal (Rocal), which translates roughly as “windy bald head.” This name seems quite appropriate for such an isolated and uninhabited place. British politician Lord Kenneth (Lord Kennet) was once said of Rockall: “there is No place more desolate, full of despair and horror.”
At the time the Celts called this the rock of Rocamora (Rocabarraigh). In Scottish mythology Rocamora was considered to be a special stone, which was destined to appear above the surface of the water only 3 times in the history of mankind, and the last time associated with the end of the world.
In 1955, when everyone’s lips was the Third world war and the threat of a nuclear disaster, Rockall was officially declared an island belonging to the British Crown. This was done to prevent a lone rock as the Soviet Observatory which enemy forces could observe the launch British nuclear missiles in the Northern Atlantic.
9. Jan Mayen
Jan Mayen (Jan Mayen) is a large island located about halfway between Norway and Greenland, 595 kilometers North of Iceland. This drying consists of 2 parts – the southern tip of the larger Northern, which are connected by a narrow isthmus.
Jan Mayen is a volcanic island, and the most remarkable detail of the landscape is the conical peak of the volcano Beerenberg (Beerenberg). It’s found Scandinavian sailors, who were told that off the coast of Iceland up to this harsh sushi 2 days sailing.
Northern sailors called the island Svalbar (Svalbaro, cold coast). At the end of the era of the Vikings, the Norwegians and the Icelanders have almost ceased to conquer the sea horizon, and the island was forgotten for many centuries. At Jan Mayen complex story of re-discovery. It is known that this land was again discovered in the summer of 1614 3 different expeditions. Then the island got its final name in which Yang is the name of a Danish captain of a whaler, adhering to this earth in may 1614. Subsequently, Jan Mayen has become such a popular Bay among Danish hunters of whales, that they even made this area their temporary camp. Thousands of whales were killed by people in the vicinity of the island, which led to almost complete extinction of some local species.
In 1634, 7 Danish hunters first tried to overwinter on the island for several months. They all died from scurvy and other diseases caused by constant feeding raw meat of polar bears.
After several years of uncontrolled destruction of whales these marine creatures were forced to flee the waters around Jan Mayen to find a safer place to live. After watching the Danes also left the island, and this place has once again become wild and uninhabited.
In the 20th century this land became part of Norway, and today access here is from an extremely small number of people, mainly scientists and the Norwegian military.
Little-Demon (Litla Dimun) – one of the smallest Islands of the Faroe Islands (Faroe). It’s shaped like a truncated cylindrical cone, and all the southern part of this land surrounded by steep cliffs, which are almost impossible to approach.
The inaccessibility of this island – perhaps, the main reason why this place was never inhabited by humans, which makes it quite unique for the North region of the Atlantic ocean. However, during the Neolithic period here, grazing sheep, as evidenced by their ancient remains.
Until the 19th century Little-Demon was a pasture for wild sheep descended from Faroe cloven-hoofed animals from the time of the first settlers of Northern Europe. Breed these mammals resembled the animal whose bones were discovered on other isolated Islands around the coast of Scotland. This kind of wild goats have long been extinct, and today on the windy slopes grazing only modern Faroese goats.
In autumn local farmers to moor Little-Dimono to see the wild herds, to score the required number of cattle for food, and some of them shave. All the sheep are driven to the Northern lands of the island, where they gather together, bind their feet, and then the nets are lowered into the boat that brings the animals to the mainland. In the winter the sheep are locked up in barns to favorites the population has experienced the most severe time of year in a safe environment.
Fula (Foula) is part of the Shetland Islands (Shetland Islands), and is considered one of the most remote and sparsely populated places in Europe. Despite the fact that here lives of 38 people, the island has a very long history can be traced up to the third Millennium BC.
A stone of unusual round shape, found in the Northern part of the island, long occupied the minds of archaeologists, who eventually confirmed that it was installed there for 1000 years before the birth of Christ. Cobblestone looks more like an ellipse than a sphere and its axis is located in accordance with the inclination of the axis of rotation of the Earth during the winter solstice, which suggests its relationship with religious rituals.
The current population of the Fula has preserved the unique culture of the isolated island with Nordic elements. Even the name of the place, like most of the other Shetland Islands, draws its origins in the language of the Normans (ancient Northern people), which was conquered and inhabited this region in the Viking age.
The locals still follow the Julian calendar and celebrate Christmas on 6 January, unlike the rest of Scandinavia, it marks the Christian celebration at the end of December. On Fula decided to spend Christmas eve at home with family, and its completion is always marked by a General gathering in one place.
Island Pul – one of the last places where the already extinct language of Norn was used daily and was a spoken dialect. Norn – old Norse language, and the inhabitants of the Northern Islands spoke on it until the end of the 18th century. He began to die only after the end of the 15th century the Norwegian Crown had granted Scotland the right to the North of the island.
6. St Kilda
St Kilda (St. Kilda) is a small group of Islands located far to the West of the coast of Scotland. Of Hirt (Hirta) is the largest island of the archipelago and the only inhabited piece of land in the County. St Kilda is deservedly considered the most famous concentration of land among the other Scottish Islands, thanks to its remoteness, history and amazing landscapes.
The archipelago of impressive steep rocky slopes rising above the water of the North Atlantic on 30 meters. The Hirt available for landing on the coast only in a few places, and those not so easy to get – it requires perfect weather conditions.
Previously, for nearly 2000 years on the Islands of St. Kilda lived Northern people, as evidenced by artifacts found here, some of which belong to the early period of the stone age. There are suggestions that the ancient Scandinavians came into the Northern archipelago and assimilated with the island civilization in the Viking age. In proof of this theory gives some examples of geographical names of Nordic origin, have long been objects signifying on the Islands of St Kilda.
The main feature of the culture of St Kilda was always the absolute self-sufficiency, and exclusion of the inhabitants of this land from the rest of the world strongly influenced their mentality. The island was so remote that the locals has long adhered to the religion that combines Celtic druzstvo, and Christianity. Druid altars were very common until the 18th century, in spite of many attempts of missionaries to teach the inhabitants of the archipelago to a more pure form of Christianity.
A true proof of lack of interest of the islanders in what is happening outside their home became a case that occurred in the 18th century. Here once the soldiers arrived, searching for missing Prince Charles Edward Stuart (Prince Charles Edward Stuart), heir to the British throne, and the islanders had not the slightest idea who he was. Moreover, they have not even heard about our own king George the Second (George II). The visitors were shocked by the incredible ignorance of isolated peoples.
Drunga (Drangey) is an island located in the Bay of Skagafjördur fjord (Skagafjorour) in the North of Iceland. Most of all, this piece of land famous prehistoric volcano, 700 000 years collapsed so that turned into a veritable island fortress with steep rocky cliffs. Because of the severity of the terrain on Drunga can only be reached by one single route, and nothing else.
In the 11th century Icelandic folk hero Grettir Strong (Grettir the Strong) landed on the island with his brother and slave, and together they lived on unfriendly ground for several years. The reason for this relocation was the expulsion Grettir from Iceland, which was considered one of the most cruel punishments of the times of the Vikings.
As the story goes, when the exiles were extinguished the fire, and they had nothing better to breed, Grettir went in search of the source of the fire outside the island. The characters were no more boats, so Grettir himself sailed 6 miles on the open ocean to the shores of the mainland. He was going to get the flame in a place called Racer (Reykir), but in the end was killed by his enemies, who found him dying from infection.
Draguna – a haven for millions of sea birds, which are here early every summer, hunted about 200 farmers from surrounding villages. For several months, the birders were able to kill up to 200 000 birds, and this was considered a good catch for the hunting season.
People hunted birds with floating traps, which they did three tied together rafts or boats. The design was covered by a network with loops of horsehair. In these floating snare prey usually was confused. This practice has long been quite common in Iceland method of hunting, but later it was recognized as inhumane, because rafts often swam far out to sea, and stuck with them birds died of starvation after days of graphomania away from their nests.
4. Of Surtsey
Of Surtsey (Surtsey) is an islet located near the South coast of Iceland. He is the youngest formation of the volcanic archipelago of Vestmannaeyjar (Vestmannaeyjar), and rose out of the sea on 14 November 1963, the eruption of the volcano, which began under thickness of sea water.
The eruption lasted 4 years and produced an island with an area of 2.6 square kilometers. Over the past decade, the erosion of Surtsey destroyed so much that he became in 2 times less than its initial size. The island is of great interest for scientists from several scientific branches, it is so convenient to observe the processes of formation of new landforms and the origin of life that occurred on Earth hundreds of millions of years ago. Research here often sail geologists and biologists, and access to this land is strictly limited to a simple civilian visitors.
In Iceland, are now often new Islands appear the same morphology, but they are still too young and barely could be seen above the water, and many of them are too quickly dissolved and once again go to the bottom of the ocean. The fragility of these formations is due to the fact that they are a mixture of sandbanks and volcanic gravel, which is formed by contact of molten lava with cold sea water. However, the eruption of Surtsey gave birth was special because his final stage it has reached when water has access to volcanic vents, and the magma flowed on dry slopes.
On the island managed to appear its own flora, and now it’s covered with moss. Of Surtsey quickly inhabit birds, and in 1998, there even came the first bushes.
In 1977, scientists were confused by the appearance of a sleeping volcano of potato sprouts. Soon the researchers found that this plant was planted secretly for the sake of drawing and this was the handiwork of teenagers from a neighboring island. The other confusion happened when Surtsey appeared tomatoes. As it turned out, the sprout of tomato grown from seeds listed on the volcanic land via excrement of one of the scientists, not poterpevshego to a more civilized toilet. Seedlings of tomato and potato were carefully withdrawn, and the responsible parties were reprimanded for entering the virgin soil of foreign cultures.
Svalbard (Svalbard) is a frozen archipelago, located in the far North of the Arctic circle and the most Northern permanent settlement on the planet. Another name for this place – Svalbard or Spitsbergen, and it belongs to Norway, although one of the largest Islands of the archipelago there are also a whole settlement of Russian miners.
The relationship of Norway to the archipelago is somewhat atypical. Officially, this area is considered to be demilitarized, and minerals in its territory can produce any foreign government that has signed the Svalbard Treaty. By the beginning of 2016 at the signing of the agreement was attended by 45 parties.
Glaciers cover 60% of the total area of Svalbard, and during the winter here polar night reigns. In Longyearbyen (Longyearbyen), the largest settlement of the archipelago, the polar night lasts from October 26 to February 15. It is almost 3.5-4 months of darkness.
On the island there is a developed road system, and between the cities and the mines laid a few similarity snowy trails. Snow scooters – the main form of transport on the Islands, especially in winter.
Travelling outside the cities can be very dangerous, because Svalbard is home to numerous colonies of polar bears. Everyone who leaves the settlements are required to carry appropriate equipment and local authorities are strongly advised to carry firearms to be able to ward off powerful predator.
Perhaps Svalbard sounds like a Paradise for naturalists and lovers of guns, but moving here is almost impossible unless you have hired an Icelandic company. Most of the houses and buildings on the Islands are owned by private corporations that rent property for local workers.
Planinska island (Flannan Isles) is a group of 7 small coastal Islands of Scotland. Their total area is only 588 thousand square meters. People left these places since, as the largest island lighthouse Eileen-Maur (Eilean Mor) was fully automated.
The small size of the archipelago Flannan and its relative remoteness from the mainland sushi for a long time was the cause of it uninhabited. However, the ruins of the chapel, several shelters, and other objects prove that once these places were inhabited by hermit community monks.
In the late 19th century on the island of Eileen Mor was built 23-foot lighthouse, and in 1900, the archipelago became the site of a famous story about the mysterious disappearance of all 3 wardens to navigation tower. They disappeared simultaneously and completely unnoticed.
All three men disappeared on the day a heavy storm, which destroyed one of the two local marinas, but also caused heavy damage to the navigation equipment and the infrastructure of the settlement. On one of the cliffs and the turf was torn at a height of 61 meters – so high and powerful the waves were, razvivavsheesya on the slopes of the island. The disappearance of Rangers attracted to the archipelago the attention of the British public and have spawned many of the most incredible theories.
The circumstances of the disappearance of 3 men seemed very odd, considering that the inside of the lighthouse was a complete order, except for one overturned chair in the kitchen. All the gates and doors were locked, the flag was lowered, the beds are not made, and all the clocks have stopped. According to the rules of the Administration of the Lighthouses of Scotland tower under any circumstances should not have been left entirely unattended, but for some reason disappeared from all 3 of your station staff. Another strange detail was that the inside of the lighthouse was one set of storm workwear. It turns out that one of the Rangers so much in a hurry out that he was not up to proper equipment, appropriate terrible weather?
The mystery of the disappearance of Rangers is still not solved, but the version of the authorities is that all employees of the lighthouse is simply washed into the sea.
The Isle of Rona (Rona) is often referred to as North Rona in order to distinguish it from the other eponymous Scottish island. This Northern piece of land, washed by the cold waters of the Atlantic ocean, and it is so isolated and remote that it is often forget to map the UK. Over the past 1,500 years is not just Ron left for a long time and was left completely uninhabited. At the same time there lived no more than 30 people.
Before the Viking age Ron was supposedly a refuge for Christian hermits. Subsequently, the Islands were captured by Vikings and governed by Norwegian monarchs for several centuries. The presence of the ancient Scandinavian peoples on this earth have not yet been proven, although the name “Ron” probably is of Norwegian origin.
In the 8th century BC settled here St. Ronan (Ronan). Said that he built a small Christian chapel, which still stands in its place. Archaeologists believe that this ancient Christian building in the whole of Scotland, preserved to our days.
The most curious tourists are allowed to crawl in a small half-submerged structure, made of earth and rough rocks, and inside in the corner of the chapel you can see an ancient stone cross. Such artifacts can best shed light on how the monks lived, willingly choose the harsh Ron his place of seclusion one thousand years ago.
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