9 October 1959, he was born Boris Nemtsov, state and political figure
Boris Efimovich Nemtsov (1959-2015) was born in Sochi in the family of the Deputy chief of construction of the cupola of Efim Davidovich Nemtsov and pediatrician, honored doctor of Russia Dina Nemcova Yakovlevna (née eidman).
Boris was not yet six years old when his parents separated. In 1967, he and his mother moved to Gorky (now Nizhny Novgorod). With a gold medal graduated from high school № 11 of Prioksky district. In 1976 he joined the Radiophysics faculty Gorky state University. N. Lobachevsky, who graduated with honors in 1981.
After graduation, the Germans went to work in the Gorky scientific research Institute of Radiophysics. Studied the problems of the plasma physics, acoustics and hydrodynamics. In 1985 he defended his thesis on “Coherent effects of interaction of moving sources of radiation” and received the degree of candidate of physical and mathematical Sciences. “Really talented physicist,” said about it later Nobel laureate Vitaly Ginzburg.
In the years 1987-1990 Boris Nemtsov became involved in the environmental movement. After the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the area there was an organization “For nuclear safety”, which opposed the construction of Gorky nuclear stations of heat supply. First, in the collection of signatures against the nuclear power project involved the mother of Boris Nemtsov, and followed her into the struggle against the construction of the Gorky plant and joined the son. In 1987 he published a relevant article in the newspaper “the Nizhny Novgorod worker”. The station eventually was built.
After this campaign, Boris Nemtsov, in 1989, was nominated as a candidate in people’s deputies of the regional society “For nuclear security”, however, has not been registered by district election Commission. In March 1990, was elected people’s Deputy of the RSFSR Gorky national-territorial district. In the national Parliament was a member of the “Coalition of reform” and fraction “the Left centre — Cooperation”. This is the introduction Nemtsov Boris Yeltsin. As he recalled, the Germans, the session of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR, Yeltsin was elected its Chairman, was invited to a meeting of the deputies, who won under democratic slogans. At the meeting, which lasted several hours, he asked Nemtsov “You are from Nizhny Novgorod? Do you have any idea as us to equip Russia?”.
During the elections of the President of Russia in 1991 Boris Nemtsov became a confidant of Boris Yeltsin at the Gorky region – August on the way to vacation with his wife and daughter, he was in Moscow, and in the end, instead of Sochi went to a suburban military base to campaign for Yeltsin.
During the August coup, Boris Nemtsov took part in the defense of the building of the Supreme Soviet (“White house”). After the coup all Gorky officials removed for support of the emergency Committee. It was urgent to find a new head of the region, and Nemtsov, Yeltsin in there didn’t know anyone. On 27 August he appointed Boris Nemtsov, a representative of the President in Gorky (may 1992 – Nizhny Novgorod) region, and November 30 – the Governor.
As the remembered Nemtsov, Yeltsin appointing him to the post, said: “You are very young, you’re only 32, but Oh well, I’m a couple of months will prescribe. You fail on camera.”
To create economic development programs region the Germans have invited Grigory Yavlinsky, who, along with a large group of experts have created the desired program. However, to bring it to life failed. “In 1992, inflation was 2600% – what can I say? explained Yavlinsky. – But the political and social situation in Nizhny Novgorod was much better than anywhere else, even better than in Moscow.” In the region for the first time in the country introduced a single window system during the registration of private entrepreneurs, have the simple at that time in the country the rules of their registration. According to Yavlinsky, “was guaranteed to all private employers protection on behalf of the region – in the sense that everything they do will be protected. They created such an atmosphere that caused the first interest from investors.”
The Germans revived Nizhny Novgorod fair, he tried to attract to the region foreign investors, which traveled to Europe and invited businessmen and politicians to visit the area. In particular, thanks to his efforts in the region came Margaret Thatcher, and then Nemtsov’s popularity has grown even more. He had a reputation as a “shirt-guy”, the leader of the new formation, the door of his office in the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin was not closed until late at night. Journalists had free access to weekly operational meetings of the Governor’s administration, was completely absent from the accreditation procedure.
Nemtsov was open, knew how to please, has earned great fame of the reformer. In 1995, when the region held direct gubernatorial elections, he won them a landslide victory.
During the work of Nemtsov, the Governor implemented several successful programs: “Roads and temples,” “Gifted children”, “people’s phone”, “meter by Meter” (the housing program for military personnel), “Fair”, “Construction of processing enterprises”, “Gasification of villages”, “Grain” (“Land reform in Nizhny Novgorod region”). In 1996 Nizhny Novgorod region took the 3rd place in Russia in terms of investment. She was one of the donor regions, it was called “ground reform” and the Lower “third capital”.
Over time, Yeltsin became publicly Nemtsov to pay more attention, and often met with him, publicly praised, and at one of the events when the reporters jokingly said: “Good boy, take him to Moscow!” After that, Nemtsov became known as a potential successor to Yeltsin. Yes, and the Russian President he was presented the Western partners, including bill Clinton.
In 1997, Nemtsov was appointed first Deputy Prime Minister in the government of Viktor Chernomyrdin, another Deputy was Anatoly Chubais. They immediately became known as “reformers”. Chubais was engaged in economic issues, and the Germans – the solution of specific industrial and technological problems. He was in charge of the government social unit, housing and utilities and construction, antitrust policy, and from April to November, was the first Vice Prime Minister-Minister of fuel and energy. Political analyst Gleb Pavlovsky believes that in 1997, Yeltsin deliberately appointed Nemtsov as first Deputy Prime Minister, to be able to bring it to potential candidates for President. This has led to the explosion of the rating Nemtsov. By the end of 1997 it reached 29% and was greater than that of the leader of the Communists Gennady Zyuganov.
But the successor of Boris Nemtsov did not become. Largely because I went into open conflict with the oligarchs. “I said I didn’t want to live in a country of victorious gangster capitalism, and the term “gangster capitalism” has since entered the political lexicon. I wrote the President a letter in which he formulated seven points of the plan of struggle against the oligarchs,” said Nemtsov. One of the points of this plan, in particular, it was proposed to stop mortgaging auctions and announce privatization of only at public auction.
Working for the government, the Germans fought two serious wars – one for “Gazprom”, another for “Svyazinvest”. He led the Collegium of state representatives in the Board of “Gazprom” and proclaimed the policy of demonopolization of the gas sector. In response to “Gazprom” tab in the Newspapers “Trud” and “Rabochaya Tribuna” began to expose the “young reformers”, who, allegedly at the behest of the IMF, was going to dismember the largest Russian Corporation.
In “Svyazinvest” claimed the group of Vladimir Potanin/Michael Friedman of iboris Berezovsky/Gusinsky. The Germans acted in a completely transparent auction, not burdened by any conditions. The structure “Interros” and “Alfa-group” were ready for such conditions and won the privatization auction package “Svyazinvest”, offering for the shares of $2 billion.
Boris Berezovsky and a group of “Bridge”, which then controlled virtually all the television channels, began discriminatory campaign to destroy the President’s popularity rating Nemtsov. “For Svyazinvest, as is known, claimed Vladimir Gusinsky. Almost simultaneously happened scandal with “Gazprom” when the Board of Directors of the largest monopolies have wanted to lead Boris Berezovsky. I was strongly opposed. Berezovsky is known to have owned Russian Public TV. And so it happened that we Chubais made your worst enemies in the face of the most influential media magnates. Boris Yeltsin initially supported our plan against oligarchs… We Chubais announced that he will cleanse Russia of the oligarchs. Berezovsky and Gusinsky in response told us the information war. Telekiller Sergei Dorenko’s weekly program “Time” poured us with mud, telling nightmarish stories. <…> Because of corruption or abuse of power of our enemies could not detect, the ORT and NTV were beaten at specific image points,” wrote subsequently the Germans. In the spring of 1998, leading one of the final programs, announced that this presidential candidate is no more, and right in the air crossed portrait of Nemtsov.
In March 1998, Chernomyrdin’s government was dismissed. Acting Prime Minister was appointed Sergei Kiriyenko, who held the position only a few months – a few days after the default of August 17 1998, his government was also dismissed. Yeltsin told Nemtsov that the crisis is irrelevant and therefore will work in the government until 2000, but he refused and on 24 August 1998, filed a petition of resignation.
In December 1998, the Germans created a political movement “young Russia”, which in 1999 became part of the coalition “Right cause”.
August 24 1999, Sergei Kiriyenko, Boris Nemtsov and Irina Khakamada announced in Moscow on the establishment of the bloc “Union of right forces”, which became part of the coalition “Right cause”. In December 1999, the Germans together with Sergey Kirienko and Irina Khakamada topped the list of the bloc “Union of right forces”, which in December 1999 was elected to the State Duma. SPS scored of 8.52%.
Nemtsov became first Deputy speaker, and in 2000, the leader of the faction. Initially, SFOR supported the candidacy of Vladimir Putin for President of Russia, but later took a critical position towards the current government. And after the abolition of gubernatorial elections and the Yukos affair, the movement went into hard opposition.
May 27, 2001, Nemtsov was elected Chairman of the Federal political Council of SPS.
The next elections of 2003, the SPS failed. Their campaign commercial – Nemtsov, Chubais and Khakamada in a luxurious business jet with the slogan “We will give Russia acceleration” failed, party did not overcome the 5% barrier in the Duma has not passed. After the defeat in the elections, Nemtsov resigned from the post of Chairman of the political Council of the ATP.
In 2004-2005 he held the post of Chairman of the Board of Directors of concern “Oil”, and was its President Igor Linshits.
In 2004 he was elected to the Board of the “Committee 2008: Free Choice”.
In 2004, the URF has officially supported Viktor Yushchenko during the presidential election campaign in Ukraine. During the “orange revolution” Nemtsov was one of the few Russian politicians who spoke in support of Yushchenko. From February 2005 to October 2006 he was an Advisor to the President of Ukraine.
In 2007 a book was published Nemtsov’s “Confessions of a rebel.”
In September 2007, the party Congress approved the SPS Boris Nemtsov together with Nikita Belykh and Marietta Chudakova at the head of the electoral list of the PCA in the elections to the State Duma of 2007. During the election campaign the party has criticized the government and specifically of Vladimir Putin.
In December of the same year, the SPS Congress has nominated Boris Nemtsov, a candidate for the post of President of Russia for participation in the elections in March 2008. However, on 26 December, before the start of the campaign, Nemtsov withdrew his candidacy in favor of Mikhail Kasyanov, since according to opinion polls presidential rating Nemtsov at the time was already less than 1%.
February 12, 2008 in the office of the party “SPS” was held the presentation of the expert report by Boris Nemtsov “Putin. The results of the” created co-authored with Vladimir Milov. The same day Boris Nemtsov announced the suspension of its membership in the “Union of right forces”, refusing to comment on the decision. In April of the same year became part of the coordinating group for the preparation of the first Congress of the United democratic movement “Solidarity”.
In November 2008, at an extraordinary Congress of the SPS party announced dissolution. On the basis of the liquidated parties SPS, Civil force and the DWP created a new party “just cause”. Nemtsov was an active opponent of the dissolution of PCA, called Right cause, “a Kremlin project” and refused to participate in it.
In December 2008, at the first Congress of the United democratic movement “Solidarity” was elected a member of the Federal political Council of “Solidarity” and joined the Bureau of Federal political Council of the movement.
In spring 2009, Boris Nemtsov participated as a candidate in elections of the mayor of Sochi. According to official data, in elections with a significant advantage in the first round defeated the former mayor of Anapa, United Russia Anatoly Pakhomov, received 76,86 % of voices. The Germans took the second place with 13,6 % of votes.
March 10, 2010, Nemtsov was among the first opposition activists signed the appeal “Putin must go”.
16 December 2010, the Prime Minister of Russia Vladimir Putin live on Russian television to question “what really like Nemtsov, Ryzhkov, Milov and so on?” replied, “Money and power, what more do they want?! At the time they were morganii, in the 90-ies dragged along with Berezovsky and those who now is in imprisonment places which we remembered today, many billions. Them from a feeding trough have dragged, they overspend, they want to return and refill their pockets.” Nemtsov filed a court claim about discrepancy of validity of information and estimates provided by Putin. In February 2011, the suit was dismissed. Judge Tatyana Adamova pointed out that “the names of Nemtsov, Ryzhkov and Milov used not as proper names, but only in the nominal importance of these names to denote a certain class of politicians.”
31 December 2010, Nemtsov was detained by law enforcement officials after the authorities agreed to a rally on triumph square campaign “Strategy-31”. He was convicted of disobeying a “lawful order or requirement of a police officer” and subjected to administrative detention for 15 days. According to the statements of numerous witnesses of the detention of Boris Nemtsov, the accusations against him were fabricated. In January 2011, the human rights organization “Amnesty international” acknowledged Boris Nemtsov as a prisoner of conscience. In July 2014, the European court of human rights acknowledged that the arrest of Nemtsov and his arrest was illegal and to pursue goals that are not related to the grounds of deprivation of liberty referred to by the authorities. The court ordered Nemtsov to pay compensation in the amount of 28.5 million euros.
In December 2011 Nemtsov was included in the organizing Committee of the series of rallies against electoral fraud in the Duma elections. Later the portal Life News has published phone conversations of Nemtsov, in which he discussed his disagreements with the other members of the organizing Committee, using profanity. After the scandal, the Germans apologized to everyone that could hurt his telephone conversations.
In 2010, the Germans had strongly advocated the adoption in the European Union and the U.S. “Magnitsky list” imposing personal sanctions against persons responsible for violation of human rights. In February 2012 he told the European Parliament “a list of Nemtsov,” as an addition to the “Magnitsky list” and “list of Khodorkovsky.” From a list of 11 names: from Vladimir Putin to Vasily Yakimenko
In June 2012 Nemtsov with Kasyanov and Ryzhkov were elected co-chairmen of Republican party of Russia — people’s freedom Party (“RPR-PARNAS”).
In October 2012 the election of the opposition coordination Council (KSO) Boris Nemtsov has occupied 16-e a place on the civil list.
In 2013, “RPR-Parnassus” Boris Nemtsov was elected to the Yaroslavl Duma. Became a member of the Committee on the budget. According to colleagues, was a very active Deputy, although not lived continuously in the region, attended all meetings of committees and Council, was an active legislator — though most of his initiatives were rejected.
February 27, 2015 at half past twelve at night, Boris Nemtsov, was shot dead by unknown killers at the beginning of the Bolshoy Moskvoretsky bridge, which was walking with his girlfriend, 23-year-old Ukrainian model Anna Duritskaya. Killer Nemtsov shot six times in the back, then fled in a waiting car. Four bullets hit the head, heart, liver and stomach. From the received wounds Boris Nemtsov died on the spot. He was buried at Troekurov cemetery in Moscow.
Nemtsov was killed on the eve of scheduled for March 1, 2015 the opposition March “Spring”, one of the organizers of which he was. Instead on March 1 was held in Moscow thousands of mourning March in memory of Boris Nemtsov. According to the organizers, it came to 50,000 people, according to police — 21,000 people.
After investigations, murder charges were brought against five suspects – Zaur Dadaev, Anzor and Saddam Gubareva, to the Boy Eskerhanova and Khamzat Bachevo. According to investigators, they organized a criminal group for two years, followed by a politician.
Direct killer Nemtsov, the prosecution called the former Deputy commander of the Chechen battalion “Sever” Zaur Dadaev. March 7, 2015 Dadaev was detained on the territory of Ingushetia, and the next day taken to Moscow, where he gave a confession. The reason for the murder, he said, were anti-Islamic statements of Boris Nemtsov made, in particular, in connection with the attack in the edition of the French magazine “Charlie Hebdo”.
3 October 2016 the Moscow district military court has started consideration of the case about murder of Boris Nemtsov.
What is known
Bors The Germans. 2012. Photo: Valerij Ledenev
One of the most well-known opposition politicians in Russia. During the presidency of Boris Yeltsin, Nemtsov became the youngest Russian Governor and Deputy Prime Minister under Putin, has consistently been in opposition to power.
Nemtsov is a political author of the report “Luzhkov. Results”, “Putin and the crisis”, “Putin and Gazprom”, “Winter Olympics in the subtropics” and “Sochi Olympics”, “Putin. Results”, “Putin Said. Corruption”, etc., as well as three autobiographical books: “the Provincial” (1997), “the Provincial in Moscow” (1999) and “confessions of a rebel” (2007). In may 2015, the presentation of the report “Putin. War”, written by Nemtsov’s colleagues.
The murder of Boris Nemtsov, committed only a few hundred meters from the Kremlin walls, was the most notorious political murder in recent history of our country.
What you need to know
The name of Boris Nemtsov regularly involved in a variety of scandals.
In December 1993, his campaign for election to the Council of the Federation, allegedly financed previously convicted Andrey Klimentyev, which the Germans were familiar with the 1980-ies. Klimentyev was part of the entourage of Boris Nemtsov, was his Advisor
In January 1994, the administration of Nizhny Novgorod region acted as the guarantor in the loan of $ 30 million which was received in the Ministry of Finance shipyard “Oka”. That summer, in the course of privatization Klimentyev bought 30% of shares of “Oka”, and in January 1995 became part of the Board of Directors of the plant. The regional administration did not exercise control over the spending of the allocated plant of the loan, and part of the funds were spent inappropriately.
In early 1995, at the initiative of Nemtsov Prosecutor’s office opened a criminal case against klymentyev, he acted as a witness for the prosecution in court. In 1998 Klimentyev in this case was convicted of misappropriation of nearly $2.5 million and sentenced to six years imprisonment. In turn, he accused Nemtsov in receiving and soliciting bribes. According to the statement Nemtsov was prosecuted for calumny. The fact he has won, the court found Klimentyev guilty of libel.
Another scandal was connected with an old colleague Boris Nemtsov by Brevnov. At the beginning of the work in the government Nemtsov-Brevnov recommended in the management of RAO UES. Eventually he became Chairman of the Board of RAO. Less than a year the audit chamber found at Brevnov numerous financial violations. He was fired, and the Germans lost an impact on RAO. And although he later admitted the appointment of Brevnov mistake, this story hit hard at the image of Deputy Prime Minister.
In 2004-2005, the Germans were the Chairman of the Board of Directors of concern “Oil”, and was its President Igor Linshits. According to prosecutors, the Bank, which was a concern, acted criminal group, committing illegal banking operations, received the “criminal income in the amount of 57 billion rubles.” After the start of inspections of the company Boris Nemtsov left the group, stating that he wanted “to eliminate any political risk in business” to his friend, Linshits. In the words of Nemtsov, the concern “Oil” he was engaged in the construction of commercial real estate in Moscow and the Bank “Oil” has never worked. The case of plunders in Bank “Oil” was discontinued in 2010.
The fate of the progressive intelligentsia in Russia: “Russia is a cruel country. And she does not forgive people, even the good things they wanted to do for her. I don’t remember a single person who would have done something very important and progressive for Russia and would not have lost for it. Where Yury Afanasiev? Where Galina Starovoitova? Where Gennady Burbulis? Where Is Sobchak? Gavriil Popov? Aven? Nechaev? Where Gaidar? Where the reformers, the governors? In this sense, some exotic, related to me, of course. But, maybe soon all will be corrected and so, as tradition dictates”.
First press Secretary of Boris Nemtsov Alexander kotyusov about the Germans-the Governor: “He was a born leader and a perfectionist. And always — a generator of innovative ideas. Yeah, he was like a tank, those who did not believe in him “Nizhny Novgorod prologue” — a program of entering into a free market. But he returned to the Lower rank of the capital reforms, how the city was in the NINETEENTH century”.
Ally Nemtsov on “Solidarity” Ilya Yashin: “Here he stands revealed as a street politician and that part was unexpected — before that, it took over glamorous character. Clubs, surfing, government offices… I Remember in 2007, when he joined the opposition to street view. It was a very strange news that Boris Nemtsov, former Deputy Prime Minister, suddenly goes out into uncoordinated actions, and the police starts to screw delays. Many interpreted this as posturing. Thought a couple of times going in front of the camera will pokrasovatsya and abandoned. Nemtsov this did not happen. He was imprisoned for fifteen days, for him it was, of course, is not easy — from the Prime Minister’s office on the bunk in the infirmary. But after his release he continued to enter the stock. He was again imprisoned, and he again went”.
8 facts about Boris Nemtsov
- Has written more than 60 scientific papers on quantum physics, thermodynamics, and acoustics. Among the inventions Nemtsov — some parameters of the antenna for a spacecraft (at the entry of the ship in the earth’s atmosphere due to its heating contact with the ship is lost, and the invention has removed the communications interference) and acoustic laser (superheated steam is cooled, there is a powerful infrasound). The latter, according to Nemtsov, was not a weapon because it did not have time to classify.
- Nizhny Novgorod region, headed by Nemtsov, first went to the issue of bonds of the regional loan was a special loan, which was procured fuel and lubricants created by their reserve to the city, in conditions of very rapid inflation was allowed to keep the money invested. Loan and purchase of fuel and lubricants paid for with money, which released the region itself. They got people in the name of “Nemcova”. In the field was not so “Nemcova” performed the role of money, and state bonds in the region. It is the regional loan was issued “Nemcova” in the amount of 7.3 billion rubles, which allowed to solve the problem of lack of cash. Subsequently, the loan was fully paid and “Nemcova” was used as a raw material for the production of containerboard and products for soft roof.
- In early 1996, at the initiative of Boris Nemtsov in Nizhny Novgorod region was carried out collecting signatures for the withdrawal of Russian troops from Chechnya. 29 January 1996, one million signatures Nizhegorodtsev was handed over to President Yeltsin. “I downloaded a folder in “Gazelle” and brought to Moscow. Left “the Gazelle” on Vasilevsky descent, pulled one pack from the subscription lists and went to the Kremlin” – said Nemtsov. Yeltsin called him a populist and is instructed not to help the province, however, Nemtsov took then with him to Chechnya for talks.
- In may 2005, the Germans gave evidence at the Royal courts of London in the process “Berezovsky against Mikhail Fridman”, where he spoke about the attempt of Boris Berezovsky to gain control over “Gazprom” in 1997. According to Nemtsov, who was Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of fuel and energy and the representative of the state in OAO “Gazprom” in 1997 Berezovsky brought a draft resolution of the government appointing him Chairman of the Board of Directors of “Gazprom”. The decree had been signed by Chernomyrdin and Vyakhirev, for approval by the required signature Nemtsov. The Germans called Chernomyrdin and Vyakhirev, who have not confirmed their consent. Nemtsov to sign the draft refused and drove Berezovsky who waged against him the information war.
- Boris Nemtsov made the ascent of mount Elbrus – the highest point of Russia and Europe. 7 Aug 2010 it raised on its top the flag of “Solidarity”. According to Nemtsov, “the main incentive for the climb was to raise the flag of the opposition to the hitherto unreachable heights, so I did”.
- In 2013, Nemtsov has declared an annual income of $ 17.6 million rubles, which made it the second largest revenue Deputy of the Yaroslavl regional Duma. Also in his possession were several apartments.
- From different women Boris Nemtsov had four children. Married he was with Raisa Ahmetovna, who gave birth to him in 1984 by a daughter Jeanne. In June 2015, after the murder of his father and threats via social network is in private address, Jeanne left Russia. Nemtsov also had two children from a journalist Ekaterina Odintsov, whom he had met in Nizhny Novgorod: son Anton (1995) and daughter Dina (2002). In addition, Nemtsov has daughter Sofia (2004) to his Secretary Irina Koroleva.
- On the death of Boris Nemtsov on the Bolshoi Moskvoretsky bridge is supported by “national memorial”. The authorities are constantly trying to eliminate it, but the next day again people bring flowers and candles. The ally of Nemtsov, co-Chairman of the “RPR-Parnas” Mikhail Kasyanov, offered to give the bridge a new name — the German bridge, but the Moscow authorities refused.
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