The Germans built a ship Planet Solar Türanor, which works on solar batteries.
After 14 months and 68,000 working hours after laying vessel in early 2009, the Kiel shipyard, Knierim hosted the launching of the PlanetSolar Turanor, . March 31, 2010 was completed with a bold and innovative project in the history of shipbuilding. Huge catamaran “Tûranor PlanetSolar” after the consecration, was released in the Kiel fjord. After a few test hikes, “Tûranor PlanetSolar” in early may 2010 was presented to the public in connection with the 821st birthday of Hamburg port.
To this point was lacking the wings with additional photovoltaic models, finally, they were installed and tested during the voyage from the Northern to the Mediterranean sea to the port of Monaco. There Tûranor PlanetSolar was launched on 27 September 2010 to circumnavigate the globe. The international crew of the catamaran consists of six people, among them Swiss designer Rafael Domyan.
Making the circumnavigation, which ended just over a year ago, a ship Turanor PlanetSolar, moving entirely by solar energy, has set several world records. These records include the record of long-distance swimming and the record for speed crossing the Atlantic ocean by vessels for solar energy. Now, the ship PlanetSolar, which, incidentally, is the world’s largest vessel by solar energy set a new record, beating one of their own records, set in 2010.
The PlanetSolar catamaran out to sea on 25 April 2013 from the port of Las Palmas, Spain, taking part in scientific Oceanographic expedition. After 22 days, 12 hours and 32 minutes, judgment, having a total path 5310 in kilometers, 18 may 2013 reached the island of St. Martin in the French West Indies.
Two electric motors, which receive energy from photovoltaic cells, with a total area of 537 square meters, allow the ship, with a length of 31 meters and a width of 15 meters, moving at an average speed of 5.3 host, although the maximum speed that can develop the ship Turanor PlanetSolar, is about 14 knots.
It should be noted that in the ideal case, the ship could cross the Atlantic faster, but the team wasn’t driving the boat on the shortest and direct route, after being forced to change course, avoiding areas with strong winds, great excitement of the ocean surface, and other adverse weather conditions. Due to forced changes in the course of the vessel PlanetSolar total distance traveled increased by approximately seven percent.
Despite all the difficulties and troubles of the ship Turanor PlanetSolar has managed to beat its own official world record, reducing the time of crossing the Atlantic ocean 4 days, 6 hours and 39 minutes. “It’s hard and not very correct to compare both the PlanetSolar boat will cross the Atlantic ocean, because they were conducted in different seasons under various environmental conditions of the marine environment,” says captain Gerard d Aboville (Gerard d Aboville), “But the lessons learned during the circumnavigation, have not gone unnoticed. They allowed us to modernize all the major sites of the vessel, in particular the propulsion system, which greatly increased the capacity of the vessel and its characteristics.”
Ultra-modern vehicle – boat, the body of which consists entirely of plastics reinforced with carbon fiber, was built by Knierim Yachtbau GmbH in Kiel. Unit Knierim Tooling manufactured a mold for the hull by using five-axis milling setup with an accuracy of a tenth of a millimeter. A huge catamaran with a length of 31 meters, width of 15 meters and a height of 6.1 meters today is the world’s largest ever built ship on solar energy.
The designer of the ship, new Zealander Craig Loomes with the firm Lomocean Design, created a model of a catamaran on the principle Wavepiercer (“protectall” waves). This means that both the float catamaran at sea cut the waves and not germinate on them. Testers from the company Germanische Lloyd (GL) have given their permission. The main catamaran hull lies above the water surface, which gives the ship Tûranor PlanetSolar is a kind of trimaran. To give a “pratically waves” a required rigidity, strength and reduce its weight, which is important for economical operating mode of the drive when selecting materials the designer did not compromise. All the details of construction of the 95-ton vessel is composed of a composite material – plastic reinforced with carbon fiber.
“Spent 20.6 tons of carbon fibre, 11.5 tonnes of foam core and 23 tons of epoxy resin and hardener. It is even for our employees is a difficult task,” – says the Manager of the company Knierim Steffen Mueller. The shell of the main building is a sandwich with a top layer of carbon fibers with a thickness of 4 mm (biaxial and unidirectional), and the core of the 50 mm PVC foam Airex C70.130 high density. A ratio of cover thickness and internal layers along with high strength core gives the details of the construction of the necessary strength and lightness.
The initiator and sponsor of the project worth EUR 14 million was the owner of Immo Streer of Darmsteter, which belongs to the Swiss investment company Rivendell, which invests mainly in projects related to renewable energies and environmentally friendly technologies. Including at the Berlin plant for the production of solar panels Solon AG. This firm and put up solar collectors for catamaran Tûranor PlanetSolar. Approximately 537 square meters of surface of the vessel is covered with 825 modules, containing about 38 000 solar panels. Enough for a maximum power of 127 HP in terms of horsepower.
So the ship could meet the high demands and praise their developers as the pioneers in the development of solar energy, have been used as innovations in the field of construction and materials. Tûranor PlanetSolar is equipped with highly efficient lithium-ion battery company Gaia Akkumulatorenwerke GmbH from Nordhausen who has never made such a size. Six cumulative blocks accumulate energy of 1.1 megawatt-hours and weigh a whopping 11 tons. The automotive battery of the same capacity would weigh about 77 tons.
The batteries feed the electric motor four – two for each drive shaft. Latest develop a maximum power of 2 x 10 and 2 x 60 kW, sufficient for a speed of about 7 knots (about 13 km/h at rated power 20 kW). It should be noted an outstanding power output efficiency is 92%. The two propellers carbon fiber, manufactured by Voith Turbo Advanced Propeller Technologies GmbH & Co. KG from Rostock, half protruding from the water, they are twice more than usual propellers and rotate very slowly. The wheel in the open sea is not necessary, since the ship is controlled by adjustable propellers and a speed of rotation of the two screws.
To strengthen the solar cells on the surface of 537 m2 was applied a special method. As the hull needs to be flexible, to be able to bend depending on the load, for example, in the sea, and photovoltaic panels must be installed so that the capacity of the body is preserved and the panels are not damaged. Therefore, the photovoltaic modules in the production process at the manufacturer’s works were pasted on laminated both sides with PVC sandwichpanel.
For installation of FG-modules decided to use the Sika glue company, firm Knierim has a lot of experience with it.
The surface was subjected to pretreatment. The bonding strength was tested in the technical Department at K&D Industry company Sika.
On the surface 537м2 it took a ton of PU-glue. Sikaflex-292 developed specifically for shipbuilding, cured in wet conditions, has excellent adhesion properties, ability to withstand high mechanical loads and meets all the requirements of the International Maritime organization (IMO).
The cockpit glazing firm GL Yachtverglasung, Halstenbek produced by polyurethane systems of the company Sika. Installation curved glazing of mineral glass demanded special care. The glass must meet all the requirements and standards of the International Maritime organization (IMO) and the classification of fees in respect of his application. The adhesive layer on the surface of the bonding glass must be protected from UV radiation. This provides the edge for screen printing. The glass surface was pre-treated as described above were then applied primer Sika Primer-206 G+P.
Designed for use at sea adhesive Sikaflex-296 is flexible, allowing a greater load, the alignment deviations from tolerance of 1-K adhesive PU-based, the drying in moist air. It meets all the requirements of the International Maritime organization (IMO). Sikaflex-296 is suitable for primary glazing and repairs all types of mineral glass in shipbuilding.
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