Dream of going to space did not leave mankind for centuries.
April 12, 1961, she was destined to be fulfilled, Yuri Gagarin made the first flight. After successful flights of Soviet cosmonauts, Sergey Korolev had the idea to launch a woman into space-cosmonaut. It was Valentina Tereshkova. Today, on the birthday of the first female astronaut, we want to remember about her remarkable space expedition.
Medical examination of Valentina Tereshkova.
The first space flight took place in conditions of fierce competition between the USSR and the USA. Both superpowers worked hard to ensure that their ships plied the vastness of the Universe. But as you know, the palm in this matter belonged to the Soviet Union. After the debut of “men’s” flight from the Americans had only one trump card — to prepare a “female” flight. But here, the Soviet cosmonauts was ahead of them. As soon as the Soviets received information about the preparation of American “women’s team”, Nikita Khrushchev himself insisted on the fact that among Soviet women also held a competitive selection.
Contenders for the role of a woman who first visited in space, there were many. Such proportions would be envied by any modern beauty contests: out of 800 contestants in the “final” was released 30. They began to prepare for a decisive flight. In the process of preparation was selected the top five candidates, and Valentina Tereshkova was not the first in this ranking. For medical reasons she is ranked last.
The girls were a tough test: they were placed in extremely high temperatures and in spaces with high humidity, they had to try themselves in weightlessness and learn to ground into the water, jumping with a parachute (training needed for landing during the landing of the spacecraft). Performed and psychological testing: it was important to understand how comfortable will women during his stay in space (by the way, the experience Tereshkova was unique in that she was in space for almost three days alone, all later flights were made by the Duo).
The decision about who will fly into space, was made personally by Khrushchev. The story of Valentina Tereshkova perfectly fit the ideal “girl of the people” who got just their own labor. Valentina was a simple family, she was born in the village and worked at a textile factory, a professional skydiving she never did, only it was less than 100 jumps. In short, the character of the people is fully consistent with the desired ideal.
The launch of the Tereshkova occurred on 16 June 1963. She flew on the spaceship “Vostok-6”. Valentina Tereshkova can rightly be hailed as a hero, because during the flight she faced a huge amount of difficulty, but survived all the tests. The main issue was feeling bad: nausea, lethargy, drowsiness — all of this had to fight. There was even a recorded case that Valentina stopped responding on the Ground: it turned out that she just fell asleep from exhaustion. Waking her up could only Valery Bykovsky, another Soviet cosmonaut who was in orbit. Between their ships was internal communication, which can communicate with the astronauts.
On the mausoleum of 22 June 1963.
But the most terrible ordeal, which had a long official silence of the authorities, was the malfunction in the mechanism of the ship Tereshkova. Instead land on the ground, she risked to fly away in space and die. Miracle Gagarin, watched the flight, managed to figure out how to rectify the situation, and Valentina Tereshkova were still able to come back.
Yuri Gagarin and Valentina Tereshkova.
Landing in the Altai region proved difficult. Exhausted woman-cosmonaut literally fell on the head of the local residents. Tired and exhausted, she changed into brought her clothes, revealing a body turned into a solid bruise from the suit, and ate peasant food — potatoes, kvass and bread. For it then she received a reprimand from the Sergei Korolev, because thereby she had violated the purity of the experiment.
For many years after the flight of Valentina Tereshkova Soviet woman was not raised in the space — too many complications arose in flight due to “individual characteristics of the female body”. But the name of the first Soviet woman cosmonaut forever inscribed in the history of the world!
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