Space conceals many mysteries.
Did you know that the most massive star weighs 265 times the Sun.
No. 10. The boomerang nebula — the coldest place in the Universe
The boomerang nebula located in the constellation of Centaurus at a distance of 5000 light years from Earth. The temperature of the nebula is equal to -272 °C, which makes it the coldest known place in the Universe.
The flow of gas coming from the Central star of the boomerang Nebula, moving at a speed of 164 km/s and is constantly expanding. Due to this speed of expansion of the nebula at such a low temperature. Boomerang nebula even colder than the background radiation from the Big Bang.
Keith Taylor and Mike Scarrott called the object of “boomerang Nebula” in 1980 after observing it with the Anglo-Australian telescope in the Observatory Siding spring. The sensitivity of the instrument allowed to record only a small asymmetry in the lobes of the nebula, where the assumption of curved, like a boomerang shape.
The boomerang nebula was photographed in detail by a space telescope “Hubble” in 1998, after which it became clear that the nebula has the shape of a bow tie, but this name was already taken.
No. 9. R136a1 — the most massive star
R136a1 is located at a distance of 165,000 light years from Earth in the tarantula nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud. This blue hypergiant is the most massive star known to science. Also the star is one of the brightest, emitting light up to 10 million times bigger than the Sun.
The mass of the star is 265 solar masses, and the mass in the formation of more than 320. R136a1 was discovered by a team of astronomers from the University of Sheffield led by Paul Crowther 21 June 2010.
Still there remains the question of the origin of such supermassive stars: did they do this kind of weight initially, or they were formed from several smaller stars.
On the picture from left to right: red dwarf, the Sun, blue giant, R136a1:
By the way, supermassive black hole can have the mass of a million to a billion solar masses. Black holes are the end stages of evolution of massive stars. In fact, they are not stars because do not emit heat and light and they no longer undergo fusion reactions.
No. 8. SDSS J0100+2802 is the brightest quasar with the most ancient black hole
SDSS J0100+2802 — quasar located 12.8 billion light-years from the Sun. It is notable that feeding the Black hole has mass of 12 billion solar masses, it is 3000 times more black hole at the center of our galaxy.
The luminosity of the quasar SDSS J0100+2802 is superior to solar in 42 trillion times. A Black hole is the most ancient known. The object formed through 900 million years after the alleged Big Bang.
The quasar SDSS J0100+2802, was opened by the astronomers from the Chinese province of Yunnan by using 2.4 m telescope Lizzanello 29 December 2013.
No. 7. WASP-33 b (HD 15082 b) — the hot planet
The planet WASP-33 b is an exoplanet at a white main sequence star HD 15082 in the constellation Andromeda. The diameter is slightly larger than Jupiter. In 2011, the maximum accuracy was measured the temperature of the planet is about 3200 °C, making it the hottest known exoplanet.
No. 6. The Orion nebula is the brightest nebula
The Orion nebula (also known as Messier 42, M 42, or NGC 1976) is the brightest diffuse nebula. It can be clearly seen in the night sky with the naked eye, and it can be seen almost in any point of the Earth. The Orion nebula is at a distance of about 1344 light years from Earth and is 33 light-years in diameter.
No. 5. CFBDSIR2149 — the lonely planet
Opened the lonely planet Philippe Delorme with the help of powerful telescope of ESO. The main feature of the planet that it is in space all alone. For us familiar, that the planets revolve around the star. But CFBDSIR2149 is not a planet. It is one, and the closest to the star is located too far away to affect the planet’s gravitational influence.
Like lonely planet and used to be scientists, but the great distance prevented their study. Study the lonely planet means “to learn more about how planets may be ejected from planetary systems”.
No. 4. Kruitni — the asteroid similar to Earth’s orbit
Kruitni is a near-earth asteroid moving in an orbital resonance with the Earth 1:1, when it crosses the orbit of three planets: Venus, Earth and Mars. It is also called kazipoteka of the Earth.
Kruitni was discovered October 10, 1986, a British Amateur astronomer Duncan Waltonon using the Schmidt telescope. The first time marking Cruithne was TO 1986. The asteroid’s orbit was calculated in 1997.
Thanks to orbital resonance with Earth, an asteroid flies its orbit for nearly one earth year (364 days), that is, at any point in time, the Earth and Kruitni are at the same distance from each other that a year ago.
The collision of this asteroid with the Earth does not exist, at least within the next few million years.
No. 3. Gliese 436 b is a planet of hot ice
Gliese 436 b is discovered by American astronomers in 2004. Planet comparable in size to the size of Neptune, the mass of Gliese 436 b is equal to 22 Earth masses.
In may 2007, the Belgian scientists under the leadership of Michael Gion from the University of liège found that the planet consists mostly of water. Water is in the solid state of ice under high pressure and at a temperature of about 300 degrees Celsius, which leads to the effect of “hot ice.” Gravity creates a huge pressure on water molecules turning into ice. And despite the ultra-high temperature water is not able to evaporate from the surface. Therefore, Gliese 436 b is a very unique planet.
Comparison of Gliese 436 b (right) with Neptune:
No. 2. El Gordo is the largest cosmic structure in the early Universe
A galactic cluster is a complex superstructure consisting of several galaxies. Cluster ACT-CL J0102—4915, with informal name El Gordo, was opened in 2011 and is the largest cosmic structure in the early Universe. According to the latest calculations of scientists, this system is at 3 quadrillion times more massive than the Sun. The El Gordo cluster located 7 billion light-years from Earth.
According to the results of a new study, El Gordo is the result of merging two clusters which collide at speeds of several million miles per hour.
No. 1. 55 Cancer E is a diamond planet
Planet Cancer 55 e was discovered in 2004 in the planetary system of a sun-like star 55 Cancer A. the mass of the planet the mass of the Earth is almost 9 times.
The temperature on the side facing the parent star, is equal to +2400°C, and is a giant ocean of lava, on the shady side temperature is 1100°C.
According to new research, Cancer 55 e in its composition contains a large proportion of carbon. It is believed that a third of the mass of the planet are thick layers of diamond. The water in the composition of the planet is almost there. The planet is 40 light years from Earth.
Sunrise light on 55 Cancer e an artist’s concept of:
The mass of the Earth is 5.97×10 24 kg degree
The giant planets of the Solar system
Jupiter mass is 318 times bigger than earth
Saturn — mass 95 times bigger than earth
The uranium mass is 14 times larger than the earth
Neptune — mass 17 times bigger than earth
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