More than five billion people will have problems with water in 2050.
Ukraine in providing resources for the volume of freshwater resources per person among the 195 countries ranked 111th in the world.
They spend most of the water
Now every year humanity consumes approximately 4 thousand 600 cubic kilometers per year, but in 30 years this demand will grow by a quarter, according to the report, which was presented at the 8th world water forum in Brazil.
Now most of the water wasting agriculture, mainly for irrigation – about 70%. Industrial production is about 20%, for household needs – only 10%. Experts call the biggest challenge of pollution of water bodies, which continue to use water from them would be impossible for a growing world population.
How do you plan to save water
The world has started to think about how to improve the situation and to prevent future conflicts related to water resources. The researchers propose not limited to the construction of sewage treatment plants and irrigation channels. Scientists insist on the increase of the forest area, improve soil quality and use of rainwater. Such methods allow a 20% increase in agricultural productivity.
Environmental projects are also effective in urban environments. For example, roof gardens, vegetated walls, tanks for rain water and its further use have been successfully used in different countries of the world. In new York city since 1990-ies protect river basins, resulting in annual savings of $ 300 million for water purification. In China in the coming years, will launch the 16 pilot projects called “city lips”. They will allow you to use up to 70% of rainwater. The important role played by wetlands. They cover only slightly more than 2% of the planet’s surface, but it is well filtered pesticides and toxic waste industry. They hold about 60% of metals in water. In some countries, including in Ukraine, creating artificial wetlands for wastewater treatment.
How supplied with water of Ukraine
Ukraine in providing resources for the volume of freshwater resources per person among the 195 countries ranked 111th place, said NV head of the State Agency of water resources Irina Ovcharenko. Most of the risk of water shortage in the Odessa, Kherson, Mykolaiv, Dnipropetrovsk and Zaporizhia regions. Even now in the center and the North of Odessa region some of the towns uses imported water. The situation in the region according to forecasts will not improve. On water quality in the country is affected by the discharge of untreated effluents into water bodies. So, for example, are dumped every year around 5 billion cubic meters of wastewater directly into surface water bodies, untreated sewage are dumped every year about 1 billion cubic meters, which degrades water quality. Now Goshenite changes the very principles of water resources management, said Irina Ovcharenko.
“This reform of the system of monitoring of surface water quality. Second, we are moving from administrative-territorial principle of water management to pool. The writing of river basin management plans. Not only the solution of local problems in adigranth that, in principle, not be solved, and around the trunk of the river will be addressed in a comprehensive perspective, ranging from pollutants that are discharged to conduct hydrological activities on the river rehabilitation”, – she explained.
Water situation in Ukraine can be measured in two ways, said Radio NV the Director of the Institute of water problems and land reclamation Mikhail Romashchenko. So, the reserves of fresh, surface water and groundwater, Ukraine takes the second place from the end in Europe and is a poor water country. On the other hand, we have cascades of reservoirs on the Dnieper and other rivers, and now in the state accumulates a sufficient amount of water – if in 1991 for various needs were annually about 30 cubic kilometers of water, but now the consumption has decreased three times. Despite the fact that there is a reserved water resources in Ukraine are the regions with lack of potable water, nearly 1,300 locations is constantly imported water. However, due to climate change and rapid rise in temperature, if these trends continue, by 2050, arid and very arid zones will increase by 20-30%. And in the year 2100 in Ukraine will remain only a part of Volyn Polissya with the status of the humid region. The rest of the territory is semi-desert and to the South of the country, even the desert, he added.
“If we are not properly back to the problem of water and begin to shape and implement the policy of modern, economical, water management in the next 10-15 years Ukraine will feel the shortage of water. Southern regions of Ukraine turn into depressed regions, in terms of agricultural production, agricultural business went from the South of Ukraine”, – said Romashchenko.
In 2016 at controlled and uncontrolled territories of Donbass, a study was conducted of water quality in private wells, wells, springs, reservoirs, which showed that 90% of samples do not meet sanitary standards, said Radio NV hydrogeologist, chief researcher of the Institute of telecommunications and global information development Evgeny Yakovlev. In those samples, scientists found iron, manganese, heavy metals, mercury, copper, zinc, lead, oil and chemicals, i.e. the whole range of substances that go into landfills, wastewater treatment, water bodies and discharges of the mines. To use such water for consumption by people. Thus it can be argued that in the Donbas there is already a shortage in both the quantity and quality of water. The war in the Donbass has accelerated the closure of the mines, and thereby increased the amount of uncontrolled leakage of mine waters, polluting not only the surface but also underground water, said Yakovlev. Therefore, the forecast for water in the region is disappointing.
“Will increase pollution in areas where it already appeared adjacent to the mines. Second – due to the increased number of mines where the levels closer to the surface, will spread the contamination on the Seversky Donets, on the Kalmius river in the Donbas, which cross the area of the mines. And third: we will have a great influence on the chemistry of the sea of Azov”, – said Yakovlev.
In the ranking of consumption of water in Ukraine are spending on the industry, in the second place, households and the agriculture with less than a third of the expense.
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