Topic “Bourgeois socio-economic system and its periods”.
Foreword – Karl Marx to the 2nd edition of “Capital” and Lenin’s work “imperialism, the highest stage of capitalism”.
The bourgeois social-economic formation originated about 500 years ago. In the depths of the feudal socio-economic formation. She was born with the advent of the so-called Magdeburg law to cities. The kings needed a helper in the struggle against the big feudal lords, who staged a civil war, and destabilized the whole country. Remember the war of the roses, the Burgundians and Armagnacs, fellow and Ghibellines. There are many things to remember in the history of Europe. Magdeburg law gave the possibility of a peasant serf who escaped from the feudal Lord, lived in town 1 year and 1 day, to free themselves from serfdom. The city became the platform began to emerge, the industry maintained already not in a natural way, when doing those DIY they need themselves, and small-lot production. Were the most different handicraft Guild and this was facilitated by several factors. First, the Peasant war in Germany, when the pre-reform state of Germany, as a complex of various German principalities, decreased by 70%. The most serious rebellion in England, such as the revolt Wat Tyler and a Pious pilgrimage. Although they were, by Pious pilgrimages, religious character, and on the other – a rebellion against the dominance of lamberski merchants. However, they also contributed to the accumulation of people in cities. What we know from the history called “fencing”, when the English lords drove peasants from the land, where breeding sheep. On the one hand it gave the opportunity to receive a large number of unemployed workers, on the other – required weaving factory to process wool into yarn for fabric. Moreover, the feudal army took a large number of weapons. Not only in order to make their expansive operations in Europe, came the era of the Great geographical discoveries when, slowly but surely, was colonized the American continent, began the colonization of Africa by the East India company, in fact, industrial company, beginning the capture of India. All this must have been in small batch production and serial volumes. And here is just these 2 factors played a role. On the one hand, the presence of trained professionals, with others it is a huge demand for products made by more mechanized methods. The same steam engine of watt, which has led to the movement for the equipment, i.e. she began to spin the machines. So we got 1 period in the history of capitalism, which was named “capitalism of free competition”, when huge demand for products of mechanical production of various kinds of products instantly found a buyer that would have bought and therefore gave the opportunity to expand production and to improve it. It was virtually reduced this expression in capitalism as competition, as any of products of mechanical industry, given the enormous demand has found a buyer.
So, capitalism in the period of free competition — capitalism is production. Already in the mid 19th century, after the Napoleonic wars, which almost destroyed the feudal aristocracy, almost all of Europe, freed a large number of serfs. On the one hand they became tenants of the so-called Klein-burghers, on the other hand, a large number of people concentrated in cities for production. Then the role started to play a fledgling financial system. If the 17-18 century is the large number of different monetary units that produce all and Sundry, the state and feudal lords, with the advent in England of such a financier as John Lowe, was possible to replace metallic money with paper. That gave me an opportunity, first, to the transfer of a significant amount of money of financial capital from country to country, and secondly, forced banks that issued these banknotes, and who have accumulated sufficient amount of capital to find a use for them. The banking system began their actions in the Finance industry, which caused the rapid growth of this industry, the significant concentration of capital and labor. Furthermore, it is direct investments in certain production — what later V. I. Lenin called “a merger of banking and industrial capital” and the formation on their basis of the financial oligarchy. Separated companies that significant market share of a product cellar under him. Moreover, using their own national state, as a protection for their capital, it could create spheres of influence for their businesses in which they had an exclusive right to sell his product, not allowing to competitors. And V. I. Lenin said about this period, which was called imperialism — is the formation of large empires. In particular, the British Empire, the Ottoman, Russian, German. Here the French, after Napoleon’s defeat, to establish their Empire could not, though at first it had a significant number of overseas colonies. Here VI writes that “imperialism is the advantage of monopoly capitalism” when monopolies are concentrated in their hands considerable concentration of capital (money) and labor – on the one hand, with another — producing an exclusive product that no one besides them had the right to release and finally had an exclusive right to trade goods in their spheres of influence. V. I. Lenin gave a definition of imperialism, highlighted 5 signs of this period of capitalism:
— limit the concentration of capital is such that gives the production a social character;
— the formation of world unions, the international unions of the capitalists;
— the merger of banking and industrial capital and formation on their basis of a financial oligarchy;
— the export of capital takes priority before the export of goods, unlike the capitalism of free competition;
— complete division of the world between the major capitalist powers.
We see that world imperialism was a tandem metropolis-colony. There were about 5-6 States that their spheres of influence divided: Britain, the North-American United States, Russia, Austria-Hungary and Germany partially. The fact that Germany had no colonies and caused the Franco-Prussian war, which formed the German Empire. Moreover, the Prussia of Bismarck won as Austria-Hungary, which from this moment finally came under the full influence of the German Empire in spite of the fact that she was an Empire, and the defeat of the French at Sedan for a long time knocked France from the concert of European powers. To this period also belongs the defeat of Russia in the Crimean war, which forced Russia to go on to create their production, at least partially. However, this production in the First world war was almost taken by other countries. The Northern part of Russia is mainly the possession of the German capital, South-West of Russia – is a Franco-Belgian capital, Northern Russia, the Volga region, and Baku oil – the British, the Krasnoyarsk region – the control of the United States, as well as Kamchatka and Primorsky Krai is Japan, which also became part of the world empires after the victory over the Russian Empire. She was able to gain a significant part of China – Manchuria, Korea, southern Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands.
By the beginning of the First world war the world was completely divided between the major capitalist powers, and this led to the aggravation of the antagonistic contradictions of imperialism of the different countries. War became inevitable. No wonder it was called the First world. As a result, the world has undergone another division. Gone was the Russian Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the German Empire and the Ottoman. The territory of the German Empire, part of the Russian Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire is the land of the Slavic, Hungarian and Italian. The Ottoman Empire completely lost its possessions in Africa and almost lost their territory in Palestine. Bought this more than all the French: they captured most of the German colonies. England strengthened its position in India. In fact, it was then supplanted by Portugal – was captured by an island and port on the coast of Goa. And of course, this period of imperialism lasted, because there was a colonial system in the world.
The second world war is an attempt by Germany to regain its leading position in Europe and return of owned territories: the Rhineland, Silesia, Bohemia (Czechoslovakia), Alsace and Lorraine. And all this happened under the banner of the struggle against communism. The British and French, the us played too small a role, trying all means to turn Hitler to the East to destroy the Soviet state and divide its territory. What ended the Second world war we know. The fact that the entire continental Europe, with the exception of Switzerland, took part in the Second world war on Hitler’s side. Whether the direct supply soldiers to the army contingent that attacked Soviet Union – Hungary, Romania, Finland, Slovakia, Italy, Spain, or sending voluntary SS contingents, two divisions of SS France, the SS division of the Benelux, the motto of the Danish SS – Nordland, a Scandinavian SS – Viking Waffen SS in the Baltic States, the home army in Poland and Bandera in Ukraine. I should note that Bandera on the territory of the USSR prior to 1939 was not because they acted on the territory of Poland. These territories once again became Soviet after the defeat of Poland and Soviet Russia’s denunciation of the Treaty of Riga, in which Poland as a result of victory over the USSR in 1920-m to year has torn them to your advantage.
World war II crippled to a certain extent, imperialism. Was not division of the world between the major capitalist powers. The elimination of colonization in 1961 and the formation of nearly 200 new States completed the process of imperialism. It destroyed the exclusive right of a particular Corporation in the sphere of influence and this has led capitalism to a very serious crisis in the early 1970-ies. According to the Bretton woods system in 1944, the pound sterling was replaced by us dollar. From this point, we can assume, begins a new stage of capitalism characterized by the creation of supranational structures and the changing mode of production. What is it? A supranational structure is the United Nations and the international monetary Fund, which was created almost at the same time. Next was the beginning of the European Community — Treaty of France and Germany is a Union of coal and steel. In order for France and Germany in Europe is a lot more fought. Later, in 1949 NATO was created under the guise of the struggle against Communist expansion. Appeared all sorts of structure in the form of supranational judicial bodies, international tribunals, following the example of the Nuremberg Tribunal.
As a result, we have approached a new stage of capitalism. He was born in the Bretton woods system and finally established in the early 70’s, when America abandoned the gold backing of its currency, which has become the world’s reserve currency. From this point on, it was a blank piece of paper. For a long time to build the so-called SWIFT system, payment system through the dollar, buying and selling their products – now it dominates the world. Formed GAAT (WTO), the Charter of which is written, which is reflected in a large number of countries, including and Russia in their Constitutions that the international law has priority over national law.
As a result, has started its journey a new phase of capitalism. Here it is still here, Lenin rightly called imperialism — capitalism of the era of the world wars and proletarian revolutions. Extreme concentration of production gave the production a social character. The social character of production is the ability of the labour collective to influence the production process: speed up, slow down, stop. The capitalist was forced to agree to the terms of the strikers, or temporarily close your enterprise
the termination of salary payments, the so-called lockout. And then the capitalism has created a new production system is a holding system. This means reconcentration of production to primarily the elimination of its public nature. Production raskonservirovana, scattered in different countries. Moreover, there is a considerable number of legal persons who themselves own the means of production is not
possess. They take them out of the holding. And monopolies have been replaced by transnational corporations. Although now in some places these monopolies is left is the process, as you know, long. Today anywhere we can find even the remnants of capitalism of free competition, when a small owner produces and sells a product. Like monopoly there are remnants of imperialism, but they do not play an overwhelming role. Moreover, the system adopted antitrust laws, makes large-scale production to be split up.
That is, unlike monopoly, multinational Corporation? Monopoly is economically characterized by the presence of the controlling shares, i.e. 50% plus 1. And he who holds this number of shares it determines how economic and financial policies of the monopolies. In multinational corporations there is no one owner. Owned by a transnational Corporation shareholders meeting. And the concept of a controlling stake does not exist. There is a blocking stake. In different corporations in different ways, but it is 25-27% of the shares. The owner of a blocking stake can block any decision, but his conduct can not, because the issue is addressed at the shareholders ‘ meeting by a General vote. By itself, the multinational Corporation is a management foreign capitals is characteristic. A very large number of people seriously enriched during the world wars, and transferred their capital by inheritance to their children and grandchildren no longer needed in the specific part in any production. They chose to transfer their capital to the management of transnational Corporation. Therefore, this period, which I call liberal globalism can be called rentier capitalism. Ie capitalism of free competition – capitalism is manufacturers. Imperialism – capitalism of the financial oligarchy. Liberal globalism — capitalism rant. There is another typical example. Bank capital finally retired from production, it is more they are not engaged at all. He went into the virtual world, busy either financial speculation or gambling, and lending. And here, when we talk about investments, you want to transfer to in the country, is deliberately deceiving us. Because investment is a monetary contribution in the development of production, it return not required. Just the investor becomes a co-owner of this enterprise and is involved in the division of profits. Now investments call loans, and the loan, in contrast to investment is tightly specified amount of money issued to strictly certain term, at interest and availability of real estate that you can recover, if the loan is not returned on time. This is very important, because, as I said, we are constantly deceived by the fact that we need investment, the alleged arrival of foreign capital in the country – is a kind of benefit. Now, unlike the beginning of the last century, when foreign capital in Russia, while in another country, owned a considerable number of production facilities, today, financial investments in Russia – are loans under a strict percentage and demanding a refund. It is no accident in the 90 years the debt of the Russian Federation on loans were 2-2,5 times higher than the GDP produced in Russia. Moreover, GDP is a false landmark. GDP when liberal globalism is only on all sales, which is determined by the amount of recovered VAT. He does not characterize the state of the economy in the country. GNP – the amount of product which produces country, which may indicate the state of the economy, he has ceased to be considered. Recent studies – I had to read Bloomberg. Here there was an interesting figure – U.S. GDP – 1 place in the world in terms of GDP is the penultimate. Below it is only Somalia. Ie finally found out the parasitic nature of liberal globalism.
Sorkin, M. A.
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