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Sights, going under the ground. Photo

Города и достопримечательности, уходящие под землю. ФотоOnce these places may not be.

If you are asked to name the most famous sights, going under the ground, then you will most likely be called the leaning tower in Pisa and Venice is gradually sinking into the water.

However, in addition to these two famous tourist spots there are others which the foreseeable future can be destroyed.

1. “Tower of the Millennium” (Millennium Tower), USA

Города и достопримечательности, уходящие под землю. Фото

Luxury high-rise “Tower of the Millennium” opened its doors in 2009 and since then it is popularly called “leaning tower of San Francisco.” She sank into the ground almost 16 inches (40,64 cm) and several inches deviated from the vertical axis in the North-West.

The developers claim that the 58-story residential skyscraper is still safe for residents, and the blame lay for the construction of municipal authorities located near the train station, in which, according to them, the ground water out from under the Foundation, thereby causing a tilt.

In fact, no one is yet certain of the reasons that could cause subsidence, but the debate continues, as an incentive to numerous lawsuits involving the developer, the city and owners of expensive multi-million dollar apartments.

Recently the European space Agency (European Space Agency) has published detailed data from satellite images, which show that the skyscraper located in the financial district of San Francisco, continues to sink into the ground with constant speed and possibly faster than previously thought.

2. Venice (Italy)

Города и достопримечательности, уходящие под землю. Фото

Venice is known as the “city on water”, however this name may soon leave in the past: the famous city beneath the sea the Adriatic sea at a speed 5 times faster than previously thought, and tilted to the East due to the frequent floods.

To prevent flooding of Venice has taken several measures, including the creation of a special barrier (MOSE Project). It was believed that with it, the water level has stabilized.

However, the SCRIPPS institution of Oceanography (Scripps Institution of Oceanography) in San Diego, California, USA, found that the city continues to go under water and bend with the unprecedented speed of 2 mm per year over the last 10 years, with some Northern areas — at a rate of 2-3 mm per year, while the South lagoon over the same period, immersed in water for 3-4 mm.

Luigi Tosi (Luigi Tosi), a spokesman for the National research Council said the flooding of Venice is caused by settling of soil with simultaneous sea-level rise.

3. “Sags belfry” in the Philippines

Города и достопримечательности, уходящие под землю. Фото

Cathedral of St. William (St. William’s Cathedral), located in Laoag (Ilocos), Philippines, famous for its “belfry Sags” (Sinking Bell Tower).

Located 85 metres from the Church, 45-meter bell tower was built in 1612 on sandy soil. It gradually sinks into the ground about one inch (2.54 cm) per year.

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Legend has it that when she was built, it could enter the rider, but today, a person of average height will have to duck to get through the passage. Despite this, the bells continued to summon parishioners to mass.

4. Palace of fine arts (Palacio de Bellas Artes), Mexico city, Mexico

Города и достопримечательности, уходящие под землю. Фото

Palace of fine arts in Mexico city went under the ground so deep that it was originally the first floor is now a basement!

A town built on an island in the middle of the lake around 1325, for centuries suffering from an excess of water. Deforestation has depleted the sources, thanks to which in the nineteenth century, fresh water was supplied to the city through aqueducts.

The first well with fresh water was built in Central city in 1857, and by 1900, hundreds of wells have sucked the water from the underground aquifer.

Some parts of the city since 1891, dropped more than 7 meters. Some parts of the town centre in the period between 1948 and 1951, the company sank more than a meter, and another meter — to 1960.

The city dropped by 2 meters below what is left of lake Texcoco (Texcoco Lake), creating a serious risk of flooding during the rainy season. In 1950, South of the city was dug new wells, reducing the flooding of the city with the same speed to approximately 10 centimeters per year. It helped, but the buildings in the southern part of the city since then began to sink even faster.

5. Taj Mahal (Taj Mahal), India

Города и достопримечательности, уходящие под землю. Фото

Taj Mahal, built over 350 years ago as a symbol of love a Sultan of the Mughal Empire by Shah Jahan for his wife, goes underground. One of the minarets of the famous buildings of the last 30 years has deviated from the vertical axis to 3.5 cm.

The Foundation of the ebony Palace, built on the river Yamuna (Yamuna River), requires a constant flow of moisture to maintain stability. Due to climate change the river in recent times completely dry in summer months, resulting in the Foundation settles, causing the tilt.

6. Milwaukee (Milwaukee), Wisconsin, USA

Города и достопримечательности, уходящие под землю. Фото

Much of the city sinks into the ground.

In an urban area Third Ward begin to break down the bricks and cracks, and the buildings start to lean. But why?

So much in this city was built on a swamp. At the turn of the century contractors used steam pile copra to drive in the swampy land of a thousand wooden piles. Then on top of these piles were filled with concrete as foundations for future buildings.

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In the method of installation of foundations on wooden stilts is nothing new, and it has been used in Europe for many centuries, however, the “pile facilities should be maintained in a wet condition. Sounds surprising, but things that are always moist, rotting away slowly,” said Douglas Cherkauer (Douglas Cherkauer), Professor of geological Sciences at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.

When the groundwater level fell (for no known reason), pile structures exposed to air and… well, you can guess the rest.

7. Leaning tower of Pisa (Italy)

Города и достопримечательности, уходящие под землю. Фото

Only 3 meters deep, the Foundation of the leaning tower of Pisa was built on a dense clay mixture, but clay was not too strong to hold the structure upright. Construction began in 1173, but the tower already began to lean in 1178, when it was added to the second floor.

The tower is slightly bent from numerous attempts to keep it from tilting and falling, by various architects over the centuries. In 2008, engineers announced that the leaning tower of Pisa stopped moving for the first time in the history of its existence, noting that she leaned more to the side.

They expect that the tower will remain in a steady state, at least another 200 years. If we need intervention, then there is a technology through which you can make improvements and preserve the tower for another 800 years. (Tourists! You have plenty of time to make and post to Instagram photos that you “hold” the leaning tower of Pisa!)

8. Santos (Santos), Brazil

Города и достопримечательности, уходящие под землю. Фото

We have not even thought to risk by living in one of these buildings in the Brazilian city of Santos: along its coastline built a series of multi-storey buildings that are unmistakably tilted to one side.

Under the 7-meter layer of sand is a 30-40 meter layer of slippery clay, which does not withstand the weight of erected structures. Prior to 1968, local building codes do not restrict the type of Foundation that can be used in the construction of multi-storey buildings.

Ideally, the depth of the Foundation here should reach about 50 meters, but the foundations of buildings along the waterfront of Santos go to the depth of 4-5 meters. After it became obvious the slope of the first building, the building code has been amended the requirement to deepen the Foundation for high-rise buildings.

Surprisingly, people continue to live in these apartments, and the main problem they face right now is the depreciation of their property: the prices of apartments in these residential buildings fell immediately after tilt was visible to the naked eye many years ago.

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