The crater on the Yamal Peninsula in 2014.
Scientists have explained the appearance of the mysterious crater, which was formed in the Siberian Yamal Peninsula in 2014. According to researchers, the geological formation is the result of cryovolcanism activity on Earth. The findings of scientists was published in the journal Scientific Reports.
As the researchers note, cryovolcanism, as a rule, is observed on other planets and satellites in the Solar system. In conditions of extremely low ambient temperatures the cryovolcano spew not molten rock, but water and other chemical compounds (ammonia and methane) in the liquid and gaseous state. Despite the fact that rapid geological processes observed on Earth before, as a rule, they were explained by other processes.
In 2014 on the Yamal Peninsula was discovered crater of unknown origin, whose appearance was connected with the fall of the meteorite or the melting of permafrost caused by global warming. At the edge of the crater 20 meters in diameter were scattered fragments of rocks, and the maximum valley depth was 52 feet. She quickly filled with water and by the fall of 2016 turned into a lake.
In 2013 on the site of the crater formation was heaving hill (Pingo) is a hill formed by various geological processes in the permafrost zone. In the case of the Yamal crater Pingo arose during drying of the lake and subsequent freezing of the talik (frost breed). The increasing pressure formed by the ice core wet the soil within the talik, partially extrudes out of the breed that looks like a hill.
Thus there is a gradual saturation of the aqueous phase with carbon dioxide. Eventually, the pressure becomes too great, and the crust of ice is broken, spewing the wet ground.
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