Evolutionary changes take time from one year to several decades.
Researchers from McGill University in Canada have concluded that human activities are leading to accelerated development of various species of animals, plants and microorganisms. Their findings are presented in an article published in the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B.
Experts analyzed the results of studies on the impact of humans on evolution, and how this is reflected in the very human society. In many cases, evolutionary changes take time from one year to several decades — much faster than predicted by the biologists. The pressure of selection which characterizes the intensity of natural selection, as a result of human activities becomes very strong, which leads to faster development of new species.
For example, an active fishing causes fish over generations begins to reproduce at an earlier age. The offspring becomes small and loses in size, which affects the catch. Species that have been recorded for them in other people’s ecosystems, evolyutsioniruet such a way that it starts to spread faster and stronger impact on native organisms, often leading to their extinction. Sometimes the indigenous species change in response, allowing them to withstand the effect of the invader.
Among the factors of accelerated evolution, the authors also referred to the growth of cities. So, plants stop spreading the seeds in large areas due to the fact that most of the latter covered with asphalt. In addition, the animals develop resistance to industrial and household chemicals, and bacteria — resistance to antibiotics and other drugs.
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