Scientists unexpectedly agreed with the Bible.
According to biblical views, God created the first man from clay and breathed life into him. Science, in turn, put forward the theory of the origin of life in the course of chemical reactions from the “primordial soup” (then evolution has done its job). It was believed that such a “broth” was the ocean. So we were taught in school.
However, modern researchers have come to a paradoxical conclusion: the candidacy of clay as “original” material from the scientific standpoint looks much better.
APHRODITE CAME NOT FROM THE SEA FOAM!
The first cellular life forms could not arise in the ocean as was assumed, and in geothermal ponds filled with condensed steam, – said biophysicist Armen Mulkidzhanian from the University of osnabrück (Germany).
A team of graduates, which included, Mulkidzhanian (now scientists are working in labs in Russia, Germany and USA), reconstructed the geological conditions under which life originated. The researchers proceeded from the fact that all cellular organisms have a common ancestor. Examining the decoded genetic material from different representatives of living beings, a specialist in comparative genomics Eugene koonin (national center for biotechnology information, National institutes of health, USA) identified 60 genes that are almost all organisms. So, they have inherited from a common ancestor and then the path of the ciliate-shoes, the man was gone.
It turned out an amazing thing – the proteins that encode these ancient genes do not need sodium. So, life couldn’t have originated in the ocean, which is a sodium environment or, more simply, saline. Because the biochemistry of the first living organisms were not very different from the environment.
But “primitive” proteins needed potassium, phosphorus, zinc ions and magnesium. The chemical composition of the ocean even in ancient times did not meet these expectations. For example, analysis of bubbles of sea water enclosed in the rocks of an age of 3.5 billion years, showed that the sodium exceeds the level of potassium in 40 times (this ratio has not changed so far!).
Most likely, according to the scientists, life originated on land in areas of geothermal activity. According to Dr. science Mulkidjanian, chemical analysis of steam and gas condensates geothermal fields of Kamchatka confirms that they contain all the periodic table, which was necessary to the first living cells. This vapor, condensing, forming puddles and small lakes lined with active minerals.
A COLOSSUS WITH FEET OF CLAY
The clay from the banks of pools and reservoirs could be the incubator, where life began. For the first time this hypothesis a few years ago I expressed by Scottish chemist Alexander Cairns-Smith. He assumed that the first blocks of life originated in the micropores of the clay rock, which served as a miniature sand-shape – tells you how to line up in the correct structure.
This idea is experimentally confirmed biochemist James Ferris of new York’s center for the study of the origin of life. He conducted experiments with the montmorillonite is a kind of thin clay that is capable of strong swelling. From it including doing the cat litter. It turned out that this clay can act as a catalyst that helps to organize organic molecules. Should have put the simplest protocells on the surface of the clay as they began to form up to 100 times faster!
Clay layer-cake (the distance between layers may be 1 – 2 nm) acts as a chemical sponge, which absorbs water, salts, metals, organic compounds and initiates a chemical reaction between them. And then another, and protects from ultraviolet radiation, which destroyed all on the Earth, deprived of the ancient atmosphere.
A recently released joint study by researchers at the University of Kentucky and the Massachusetts Institute of technology. They managed to synthesize this “living clay” for only 20 hours at a temperature of 90 °C and normal atmospheric pressure. You only obtain in a clay vial fully living from non-living (now at the exit scientists still get a surrogate, a living organism), and the origin of man from clay can be considered proven.
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