You’ve probably heard of El niño, the climate system, which brings hot and dry weather in Australia and South America.
Many climatologists suggest that climate change is likely to exacerbate the effect of El niño, and this is one of the reasons for the desperate need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
El niño is caused by changes in the Pacific and occur with regularity from 2 to 7 years. This phenomenon is cyclical, and has the reverse phase, called La niña. The cycle of change of these phenomena is called the southern oscillation. But this Pacific mysteries of nature there is one part that is discussed by the General public much less — Decadal Pacific oscillation (IPO), fluctuations in rainfall and temperature cycle in decades. Because El niño means “the boy” in Spanish, La niña is “girl”, by analogy to the cycles of the Pacific Decadal oscillation referred to as El Tio (the uncle) and La Tío (aunt). These cycles are quite erratic and difficult to predict.
As El niño IPO is connected with the circulation of warm currents of the Pacific ocean, but the cycle of this phenomenon is stretched for 10-30 years. The similarity of the oscillations has led scientists to believe that they are closely related, but while climatologists are at a loss to explain the causes of the IPO, although I suppose that it is the result of the interaction of several different processes in the ocean and atmosphere.
Despite all the mystery, scientists believe that the IPO had an impact on slowing global warming in the early 2000-ies. When it comes to global climate change, we know that their cause is greenhouse gas emissions. Recent studies have shown that the IPO affects the weather more global than El niño, which is more a regional phenomenon. And if in 1970-90 years was the cycle of El Tio, which is characterized by an increase in temperature of water and air, respectively, in the two Americas, Asia and Australia, since the beginning of 2000-ies is the reverse process — La-Tio, which on the contrary lowered the temperature quiet and as a consequence, and the World ocean. Thanks to this the effects of global climate change are now being felt not so much, but climatologists warn that things will change, when the change La Tio will come to El Tio, which will raise the temperature of the oceans.
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