For accurate positioning meets a brain structure called the hippocampus
For accurate positioning meets a brain structure called the hippocampus. It also plays a role in the formation of long-term memory. Its cells enhance or reduce the electrical activity depending on whether the person is the correct route. However, if he goes on the same path every day, it is important is not the ability to memorize whole way, and only key points of the route.
Scientists have found what cells function as neural analog of GPS. For this they used an animal model — rats, which were placed in the maze with the shape of the letter “f”. The researchers measured the electrical activity in the brain of animals with the help of the device enabling to register the activity of neurons in four different areas: perianalny cortex, hippocampus and the two touch zones.
The researchers found that the neurons that have been named “cell neighbourhood” (neighbourhood cell). They allow the brain to distinguish the different elements that surrounds the animal. These neurons were activated when the rat passed loop of the maze. On the other hand, the hippocampal neurons were recorded at points scattered throughout the maze.
The presence of these cells in humans confirmed case of the taxi driver, the injured areas of the brain where the hippocampus is located. Despite the damage, he was able to move around the city using the main roads, but was lost when I had to go to their detour.
Neuroscientists believe that this man was able to navigate through the work only the “cell neighborhood”.
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