Russian scientists created the technology of production of new biologically active materials. Made of them the implants on the structure and properties similar to natural bone and support its growth in the body. Article about it was published in the journal Progress in Natural Science: Materials International.
Far Eastern scientists from the Institute of chemistry TO the Academy of Sciences has developed a technology for creation of biomaterials based on ceramics and synthetic calcium silicate.In development also involved colleagues from the far Eastern Federal University, Pacific state medical University and the Pacific Institute of Bioorganic chemistry. G. B. Elyakova. The study was supported by a grant of the Presidential program of research projects of the Russian science Foundation.
To the biomaterials, which are made of the implants used for prosthetics, special requirements. First, they should not have a negative impact on living tissues that are in direct contact with them inside the body. Second, the artificial bone had a porous structure. Only then bone cells and blood vessels grow inside the implant. Thirdly, it is necessary that the material possess bioactive properties, could affect the physiological processes in the body: to stimulate growth, contribute to migration, division and differentiation of cells.
Separately, both ingredients taken by scientists to create new material, already used in various fields of surgery. Powders of synthetic calcium silicate is used to eliminate minor maxillo-facial defects when bone grafting and dental prosthetics. Ceramics, capable of withstanding heavy loads, is used in larger scale operations, such as replacing a bone or joint.
“Conventional prosthesis made of calcium silicate that is inert in the body, to quite simple. And in order to make it biologically active, it is necessary to apply special technologies” — presented in a press release of the Russian science Foundation the words of the head of the project Yevgeny Papanova, head of the laboratory of composite and ceramic functional materials, Institute of chemistry TO the Academy of Sciences.
The advantage of created of synthetic material of a nanostructured calcium silicate (wollastonite), that it is biologically active and has a positive effect on metabolism when introduced into the body, and thus has the necessary for the implant structure and strength. And additives of nanoparticles of noble metals — gold and silver — lend the implants antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties.
For the material production was designed by new original technology spark plasma sintering synthesis of ceramics from the previously obtained powders of calcium silicate with different nutritional supplements.
“From raw materials we obtain bioactive nanostructured powder with the specified composition. And, if necessary, transform it into dense ceramics of the desired size and profile,” explains Eugene Papanov.
Obtained from new materials prostheses scientists tested on mice, and are noted for their exceptionally high biological compatibility. They can be used for prosthetics patients of any age. Scientists hope that their discovery will soon allow the production of relatively cheap domestic biomaterials for bone surgery.
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