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Ryazan. 1000 years ago the Cossacks founded the city of equality

Рязань. 1000 лет назад казаки основали город всеобщего равенства

This city in Central Russia can be called as a living page of history of the Cossack people, and the unique ancient social experiment. In the spring of 1095 was founded Ryazan (right. Russian Troy), where the Cossacks wanted to realize their dreams of justice, true faith and the ideal society.

 

This is one of the largest ancient cities in XII—XIII centuries, the capital of the Grand Duchy of Ryazan and the largest archaeological settlement of Russia. Area alone of the fortifications of Old Ryazan in the second half of the XII century, not counting the city of Posada reaches more than 60 hectares, with the suburbs — 75 ha.

 

The city was destroyed in the winter of 1237 during the Mongol invasion of Batu Khan, on the orders of the Khazar khanate, and all of its buildings, including temples, to ashes. Ryazan this place never recovered[2]. In the XIV century the city passed the Metropolitan and Metropolitan functions are located within 50 km upstream of the Oka and Pereslavl-Ryazanskiy, who in 1778 has found a new name in honor of the ancient Ryazan.

 

 

The red tiled roofs surrounded by a high Tower of the Gods, on the main square. Until this time, hidden under the ruins of many kilometers underground. This city was created by the Cossacks, mashariki, Mordva, muroma. Tatars are the heirs of the ancient pagan cults, opposing the yoke of the Jewish Khazar Khaganate.

 

“Ryazan was founded as a Cossack fortress under rather dramatic circumstances. Next was gaining strength Jaruzelski Jewish khanate. Common people does not wish to accept the Jewish faith, stabalise in Ryazan under the protection of Cossacks. The ideas of ancient pagan religion was close to many people at the time.

 

Ryazan, as befits the city of the Cossacks, born in the heat of battle. The Cossacks were not only warriors, but also radical pagans– it is not surprising that their attempt to restore justice, as they understood it, had at the beginning of the emergence of christiansv, which they took as a lighter religion than Judaism.

 

For the first time Ryazan is mentioned in the “tale of bygone years” under the year 1096. In fact, since the founding of the city gained momentum, strengthened and beautified, becoming one of the major cultural and trade centers of Ancient Russia. This to a large extent contributed to its favorable geographical position. Through Ryazan, located on the southernmost bend of the Oka, lay on the trade route linking Russia with many countries in Asia and Europe.

 

On the Oka and the Volga was the path to the land of the Mordovians in the Volga Bulgars, the ITIL and the countries of the East. The upper reaches of the Proni river, a tributary of the Oka near Ryazan, close match to don. There was perevolok, and waterways led from Poochya and Azov-black sea basin and then to Byzantium. Being an important economic, cultural, shopping center, Ryazan was one of the largest cities of Ancient Rus. Arabic written sources called it the “third world center”. In the XI – XIII centuries, the population of Ryazan amounted to 17-20 thousand people. This is more than in Kiev times of Yaroslav the Wise (XI century). For comparison, in the largest cities of the middle ages – Paris, Cologne, Strasbourg, – the population did not exceed 15 – 17 thousand people.

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Interestingly, the city was founded twice.

The first time the city was destroyed in the winter of 1237 at the time of the alleged Mongol invasion of Batu Khan (in fact a mercenary of the Khazar Khaganate), and all of its buildings, including temples, to ashes. Ryazan this place never recovered. In the XIV century the city passed the Metropolitan and Metropolitan functions are located within 50 km upstream of the Oka and Pereslavl-Ryazanskiy, who in 1778 has found a new name in honor of the ancient Ryazan.

 

“The place where built Ryazan, described even in the Indian Bhagavatgita – Meschera rivers of the Gods at the PRA and Oka (on the Indian legend came their ancestors and White Gods).

 

Over time, the Cossacks founded another fortress – town of Kasimov, there appeared the first Cossack army – Meshchersky. It Meshchersky Cossacks were first mentioned in written sources, and only 400 years after this settlement of the Ryazan Cossacks appears don and Zaporozhye Cossacks.

 

The Cossacks were very tolerant to all faiths other than Judaism that have sposobstvovalo the adoption by the Cossacks of faith in Christ, which was carried by the preachers who went from one village to another, villagers read his sermons, collecting them at the various hills and elevations.

 

They considered themselves the army that should unite around Jesus to resist evil and the Antichrist and be victorious in the last battle. So they were present and an apocalyptic sense that makes them indifferent to death in battle.”

 

The preachers of that time actively predicted the imminent end of the world.

 

Medieval communism

 

In Ryazan and Kasimov Cossacks tried to realize their ideals and dreams of universal equality. The priests received communion not only bread, but wine.

 

Mass the priests of the Cossacks served in the worldly clothes and boots, podporoval dagger. For it, according to their study, Vozdvizhenskiy I. V., Ryazantsev called “coopoosamy”.

 

Together, confessed aloud in the lives of the inhabitants of the ideal city had to be pure and chaste. Meals and supplies were common. All your money, jewelry, gold and silver people came to join the Cossacks were thrown into a barrel, installed on the Central square. Then this property was shared between members of the community depending on the needs. In Ryazan and Kasimov came with their families, and the citizens enthusiastically welcomed their new brothers and sisters, as they were called. All the inhabitants were considered equal, regardless of origin, nobody should consider himself above another.

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Life Cossacks spent in battle, prayer and conversations about faith. Considered “Cossack communism” lasted 300 years – then the Cossacks began to take tribute from the peasants, turning into feudal lords and adopting the habits of other landowners.

 

Great Ryazan Principality expanded nastolko that began to pose a serious threat to European countries.

 

It is worth mentioning that the Ryazan Cossacks owned the Chernigov and Kiev Principalities, they gave brand (seal) to rule Kiev and the current coat of arms of Ukraine is the emblem of the Grand Duchy of Ryazan.

 

 

When Ivan IV the terrible was created by the state printing, where around the state emblem was placed on 24 emblems of principalities and kingdoms Moscow Russia, including the emblem of the Ryazan land. She was a horse walking to the right.

 

Why the horse became a symbol of the Ryazan land? There are different assumptions. “Whether the horse allusion to the famous legend of the “Oleg”?” – considers N. And. Со6олева. Other researchers capture the similarity of the “Ryazan horse” bronze horses that adorn the Basilica. Mark’s in Venice, or with images of horses on antique gems. Assume that a gem could use print any of the Ryazan princes. Most likely, however, the horse in the Ryazan emblem imprinted because of life of the people of Ryazan Cossacks, inhabitants of the steppe of contiguous, meant it very much.

 

By the seventeenth century, many of the emblems of the lands depicted on the seal of Ivan the terrible, highly evolved, and then simply disappeared. In “Painting all state seals 1626” the emblem of the Ryazan land already described like this: “Print Ryazan man, and in his right hand a sword, right underneath the ground.” Why is the horse at the Ryazan emblem appeared warrior is hard to explain. But in 1969 archaeologists during excavations on the mound Starabasanska found a round orange plate with the image of an ancient warrior with sword and shield. We can assume that the image of the Cossack warrior-defender anciently existed in the minds of the people of Ryazan, living on the borders of the Wild Field. Warrior at the Ryazan emblem was dressed in civilian clothes – hence it is not an invader, not the aggressor, and the guardian of his father’s land – a Cossack.

 

 

Valery Kamshilov

Valery Rozanov

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