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Named the most impressive scientific discoveries of the year

Названы самые впечатляющие научные открытия уходящего годаResearch, which completely change our understanding about the world.

Today there is approximately 200-300 small scientific discoveries per year.

2-3 of them are a powerful breakthroughs comparable to the discovery of new planets in the Solar system or, say, the invention of the automobile.

What interesting things happened in 2016?

The secret of the ninth planet

The authors of the STUDY: the Astronomers Konstantin Batygin and Mike brown (Caltech, USA).

The ESSENCE of the DISCOVERY: Scientists concluded that the strange trajectory of a number of asteroids that inhabit the outskirts of the Solar system, can be explained only in one way: they are influenced by the gravity of an unknown planet. The ninth planet makes one revolution around the Sun for 15 thousand years. Its mass is 10 times greater than the Earth, and the radius is 3.6 times larger than the earth. In the ranking of the most weighty planets in the Solar system it occupies the 5th place, behind Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.

VALUE: the Study of the newly discovered planet will help you understand how formed a unique Solar system.

Bacteria that eats plastic

The authors of the STUDY: Scientists at Kyoto Institute of technology (Japan) under the guidance of Kohei ODA.

The ESSENCE of the DISCOVERY: IN the samples of soil and water that scientists have gathered at the plant for the processing of plastic bottles were discovered in a previously unknown bacterium Ideonella sakaiensis. Microorganisms love to eat plastic, decomposing it into environmentally friendly components. The existence of these bacteria – a clear illustration of how fast evolution happens. The ability to degrade plastic came from bacteria not before this man invented the plastic. And this happened only in 40-ies of the last century. Environmentalists believe that the way nature had reacted to the barbaric human activities on environmental pollution.

VALUE: IN 2013 we produced 56 million tons of materials for PET (favorite meal of bacteria), reused only 2 million. So everything else ended up in the rubbish. In the ocean there were whole Islands of plastic. Now the planet has a chance not to turn into a giant space dumpster.

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Carbon dioxide will turn to stone

The authors of the STUDY: an international team of scientists led by the Icelandic geologist Sigurdur Gislason.

The ESSENCE of the DISCOVERY: Carbon dioxide – one of the culprits of global warming. Over the last two centuries the percentage of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased by 40%. On the planet began to bake!

In response, actively developed technology for removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Now every year around the world conserved 40 million tons of CO2. But then the possibility of leaks that could cause widespread death of people and animals.

Scientists have found a way to turn carbon dioxide into rock. Four years ago, geologists had pumped 5 million tons of CO2 dissolved in water in basaltic volcanic voids to a depth of 400 to 800 meters. 2 years later formed carbonate – rocks.

VALUE: to Turn CO2 to stone is much cheaper than to reduce production or to deal with the consequences of the greenhouse effect.

Will travel to other worlds

The authors of the STUDY: an international team of scientists.

The ESSENCE of OPENING: February 11, sensors have detected “ripples” in space-time, which has reached our planet after 1.3 billion years after the collision of two black holes.

The existence of these waves was predicted by albert Einstein.

VALUE: When Heinrich Hertz discovered electromagnetic waves, no one knew that this discovery will fall, for example, based on mobile communication.

Gravitational waves are opening the same order. Now we are talking about creating a new branch of science: gravitational wave astronomy. And the hot heads argue that it’s the key to traveling to other worlds.

Went into the astral

The authors of the STUDY: Scientists from the University of Ottawa.

The ESSENCE of the RESEARCH: using MRI, the doctors have been looking at what happens in the brain of a girl who claimed to be able to separate the soul from the body. It turned out that during the experience of the girl intensified those parts of the brain that are responsible for the positioning and visualization of movements.

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VALUE: the Doctors understood the mechanism of formation of hallucinations.

Nose raised knee…

The authors of the STUDY: the University of Basel (Switzerland).

The ESSENCE of the DISCOVERY: Many people with age are beginning to complain of pain in the knees. This is a sign that wears down cartilage. Effective methods of treatment still existed. However, Swiss doctors have learned to rebuild worn joints with cartilage… nose of the patient. The fact is that the nasal septum is the only cartilage in the body can grow and recover from damage. The study involved 10 patients. They sedated took a piece of the nasal septum with a diameter of 6 mm, and then began to grow it in the laboratory.

The result is a flap of cartilage the size of 3×4 cm, which is implanted into the joint to replace the damaged section. 2 years later after the surgery the pain patients gone.

VALUE: New technologies provide the ability to return in shape and 60 and even 80 years.

Eternal flash drive

The authors of the STUDY: Scientists at the University of Southampton (UK).

The ESSENCE of the DISCOVERY: Computer files using lasers to write on nanosteklo. For a unit the size of a 5-copeck coin can store up to 360 terabytes of data (for comparison: the Hubble space telescope in 25 years of work produced only 100 terabytes of information). It is estimated that this flash drive can store, for example, an album with your wedding photo and video for 13.8 billion years. For comparison: about the same is the age of the planet.

VALUE: This will allow people to cope with the problem of storing data that grow exponentially.

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