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Named animals, which may soon disappear from the face of the Earth

Названы животные, которые вскоре могут исчезнуть с лица ЗемлиWho will leave behind a white Rhino?

After the death of the last male Northern white Rhino sub-species of animals this brought in a list of the disappeared. This means that hope for the preservation of this subspecies on Earth now are connected only with the technologies of artificial insemination.

The last remaining on the planet 45-year-old male fell ill and had to be put down. There are only two females of this subspecies of large mammals, in size second only to elephants.

This situation is unique in its complexity, says Colin Butfield from the world wildlife Fund (WWF) .

The same thing could happen with at least two forms: Wakita (a marine animal, which is also called the California sea pig) and the Javanese Rhino.

However, under the threat of extinction and many other animals.

Among them: Sumatran Rhino, black Rhino, Amur leopard, African forest elephant, orangutan bernaski. Some of these species or subspecies of animals was reduced to less than 100 individuals.

The international Union for conservation of nature (IUCN) publishes the Red book, which contains rare species of plants, mammals, birds, amphibians and marine life in seven categories, from least concern to endangered of extinction, endangered , on the verge of extinction, and probably disappeared.

According to the red book, now in critical danger of extinction threatening 5583.

At least 26 of them were in this list in 2017 from less dangerous categories, where they were in 2016.

Including California porpoise (vaquita). In November 2016, according to estimates by the IUCN, their population was only 30 individuals, the scientists feared that such a pace in 10 years these rare dark-eyed cetaceans can even die.

The word “Wakita” means in Spanish “little cow”. This is the smallest of the porpoise: its length does not exceed 1.5 m, weight up to 50 kg. Lives in shallow lagoons singly or in small groups, eats fish, swims slowly, avoids contact with humans, which is why it is extremely rare to observe in nature.

To establish the exact number of individuals of the population of animals is not always possible. However, data providing IUCN, use a number of methods to make the most accurate predictions.

For counting terrestrial mammals specialists for the conservation of nature using a combination of different methods and devices. Including:

GPS trackers
Hidden cameras recognize the distinguishing features of individuals
Tracking the killing of animals
The study of excrement
Paw prints
Scratches left by Pets in trees
However, to determine the number of individuals of the population, data obtained is used along with a preliminary calculation of some indicators. For example, how much food is available in a given area and how many species there might remain.

But, even so, to calculate exactly how much remained the representatives of a particular species is not always possible.

Every year there is information about the new species.

This does not mean that the world is getting more animals. We continue to lose species with unprecedented speed. It just shows how difficult it is to determine exactly how many species are under threat of extinction, how large or small populations of these species, and how animals face the greatest danger.

According to experts on nature protection, some species may disappear even before we know about their existence.

In particular, parrot blue macaw in the wild is considered to be extinct. However, in 2016 in Brazil found the representative of this very rare parot family.

One specimen of this bird was captured on video: it shows macaws flying between trees in the Brazilian state of Bahia.

But to assess the risk of extinction of particular species, numbers alone are not enough.

How do you evaluate the risk of extinction?
. Where animals live – in the same area or separated geographically? If one increases the risk that a single unfavorable factor could destroy the whole look.
. The duration of the reproductive cycle – how fast can a population recover, if there is a sufficient number of couples capable of reproduction?
. The danger faced by the species?
. How this population is genetically diverse?
. How dangerous is the natural habitat of these animals?

Thus, in populations which left 500 individuals can be considered at less risk of extinction, with more than 300 animals, in the case that the first species lives in the same area and has a long reproductive cycle, that is, the population cannot grow fast.

For example, compare the fauna of the tropics and the inhabitants of temperate forests. In tropical forests a lot more species that cannot be found anywhere else.

Similarly, if something happens to one single river, you can disappear all the living species in it, regardless of the size of their populations.

In addition, this will entail harmful consequences for other species in a given ecosystem.

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