Many civilizations used mummification.
In popular culture the rite of mummification is associated exclusively with ancient Egypt. This is due to the fact that Egyptian mummies were known still to our ancestors. But modern historians have discovered, and more ancient cultures that practiced mummification. This South American culture the Indians of the Andean Chinchorro: they found mummies, Dating back to 9 BC. But the attention of modern historians focused to the Egyptian mummies — who knows what mysteries can hide these well-preserved dead.
In Egypt, the mummification was born in the year 4500 ad. So the exact date has allowed to figure out the excavations of the English expedition conducted in 1997. Egyptologists attribute the earliest burial of mummies to the so-called buddiyskoe archaeological culture: the limbs and heads of dead Egyptians were wrapped in linen and matting, impregnated with a special compound.
The classic mummification process ancient times to recreate the historians could not until now. The fact that the only surviving evidence today about the stages of mummification belong to classical authors, including the great philosophers such as Herodotus, Plutarch and Diodorus. During these travelers classic process of mummification New Kingdom already degraded.
First, they extracted through the nostrils with an iron hook in the brain. Afipskiy then makes a sharp stone an incision just below the belly and cleanse the entire abdominal cavity from the entrails. Clean the abdominal cavity and rinsing it with palm wine, the master then re-clean her pounded spices. Finally, fill the belly pure pounded myrrh, Cassia and other spices (except the incense) and sew again. After that the body for 70 days put in sodium hydroxide solution. At the end of this 70-day period, having washed the body, wrapped with a bandage from the cut into strips of fine linen canvas and smear with gum — Herodotus
All learned from a corpse, the bodies were carefully preserved. They were washed with a special compound, and then placed in vessels with balm, canopy. One mummy had 4 Canopus — their covers were decorated with the heads of the gods hapi (the baboon), Dumoutier (the Jackal), Kobegenov (Sokol), Imset (man).
Honey and shells
There were other, more refined ways to embalm the deceased. For example, the body of Alexander the great’s mummified in an unusual “white honey,” which never melted. In the early dynastic period, the embalmers on the contrary resorted to a more simple way: the bodies were covered with plaster, over which was painted with oil. Thus remained a shell with ashes inside.
At the end of 1550, the Spanish official stumbled upon the mummies of the Incas, hidden in a secret cave not far from Peru. Further research revealed other cave: the Indians were a warehouse full of mummies — 1365 persons who were once the founders of the most important genera of the culture.
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