They shed light on the history of ancient civilizations.
It seems incredible, but even in the technologically advanced twenty-first century, there are still many mysteries, handed down to us from antiquity. To solve them to the end can not even modern scientists, although attempts to do this leave. One of these mysteries is the ancient civilization of Tiwanaku. about artifacts which will be discussed in this review.
Today about the ancient civilization of Tiwanaku little is known, and the archaeological excavations of its heritage is underway in the Western part of Bolivia. The first who wrote about the millennial ruins, was a Spanish Conquistador Cieza de Leon.
The Gates Of The Sun, Tiwanaku.
In the period between 300 BC and ad 300 Tiwanaku was a cultural and religious center of the same mighty Empire, which was a place of pilgrimage. However, the city itself is much older. On the basis of archaeological methods of Arthur poznansky initially, the age of Tiwanaku was estimated in 18 000 years, but modern archaeologists in the twenty-first century tend to assume that he is not so ancient.
Ancient pottery of Tiwanaku in the ethnological Museum, Berlin-Dahlem.
Today Tiwanaku has been excavated many structures, including the Temple of the stone heads, the Temple Kantatallita, pyramid Akapana temple Kalasasaya, the gates of the Sun and the Gates of the moon. Perhaps the most remarkable structure at Tiwanaku is the pyramid Akapana a height of 16.5 m, length — 257 m and a width of 197 m On the top of the pyramid was built pool cruciform shape, and in its depths lurks a complex network of zig-zag channels are paved with stone. The purpose of these channels, as well as the pyramid itself, is unknown.
Sticker for incense (rapero).
Unfortunately even before the pyramids got archaeologists, it was virtually destroyed by looters. Many stones of the pyramids were plundered for the construction of local houses and churches. Today on the Western slope Akapana preserved steps leading to the top, the sides of which are carved various figures. Recent studies have shown that this pyramid is essentially an artificial earthen embankment, which was lined with stone blocks.
Carved heads on the walls.
Judging by the surviving evidence, Akapana was considered the boundary between the ceremonial center and the residential part of the city of Tiwanaku.
The Gates Of The Moon.
To the South near the Tiwanaku is another megalithic complex of Puma Punku, which is a rectangular terraced earthen mound with a huge maloletnimi stone blocks. In particular, in Puma Punku was found the largest block of stone in Tiwanaku, which weighs more than 131 tons.
The wall around the temple Kalasasaya
Temple Kalasasaya located North of Akapana and West of semi-subterranean Temple Kantatallita. The walls of this structure carved in many different styles, suggesting that the structure reused for different purposes over time. The largest stone in Kalasasaya weighs 26.95 ton.
The Gates Of The Sun, Tiwanaku. Drawing by Ephraim SQUIER in 1877.
Many of the surviving structures in Tiwanaku stone gate, the most famous example of which are the gates of the Sun, located in Puma Punku. Interestingly, many of these millennial gates just dotted with carved images of ancient gods.
Currently, the archaeological site of Tiwanaku was declared a world heritage site by UNESCO.
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