One of the most interesting periods in history.
The rebirth, or Renaissance of globally important epoch in the history of European culture that succeeded the Middle ages and pre-Enlightenment and the modern era. We will talk about what the Renaissance, as it is properly called what discoveries were made in this era, as well as other important things.
What do you mean “Renaissance”. The term “Renaissance” usually refers to the period that began in the XIV and ended approximately in the XVII century, is something of a bridge between the European culture of the middle Ages and New time. Although the term is now taken for granted, self-era, he was not. Historian and painter Giorgio Vasari in “Lives of the most famous painters, sculptors and architects” (1550) the term rinascita (literally “rebirth”) opposed a new art, coming from Giotto to Brunelleschi, Alberti, Leonardo, Raphael, Michelangelo and other masters of the “barbaric” Gothic style. He had an artistic breakthrough, and not a return to antique sources. But it is Francesco Petrarch who is traditionally considered the first Renaissance writer, was called upon to resurrect the ancient Canon, and most importantly — classical Latin, to purify the language from the layers of the barbaric Middle ages. It is easy to see that two of the author’s “Renaissance” mean fundamentally different things. In the mid-nineteenth century, after the publication of Jules Michelet’s “History of France in the sixteenth century: Renaissance”, historians began to call in the French manner the entire period from the XIV to XVI century. The term caught on: within five years came the classic work of Jacob Burckhardt “Die Kultur der Renaissance in Italien (the Culture of Italy in the Renaissance”). Gradually the word “Renaissance” or “rebirth”, began to be used more broadly, referring to any interest in resuming the lost knowledge.
When was the Renaissance. Accurately indicate the boundaries of the era; the debate about this being the decades and hardly ever complete. For a nominal starting point often take a year 1341 when Francesco Petrarch was crowned with a Laurel wreath at the Capitol. In antiquity the wreath was supposed to the winner of the poetry competition, but in the fourteenth century Petrarch was out of competition: he was rightfully recognized as the undisputed winner, the heir of the ancient literature, designed to revive the pure Latin. 1341 the year date is more than conventional, but in science there is a consensus that the Renaissance began in Italy of the XIV century, and its first and main centre was Florence. When the end — the question is even more controversial. The final chord of the Renaissance can be considered the discovery of America (1492) and the beginning of the reformation (1517), and the execution of philosopher Giordano Bruno (1600), and the end of the Thirty years war (1648).
The Renaissance and the middle Ages. According to popular belief, the Renaissance rejected medieval superstition in favor of science and turned instead of God to man. It is considered that first thing in the revival of the abandoned scholasticism, that is, the system of strict philosophical proof for the existence of God on which it is founded the first universities (schola). Now this word is almost a dirty word, but initially, scholasticism was one of the greatest achievements of European intellectual culture. It was she who taught European man to think logically; a significant role in this process was played by the writings of Aristotle, who in the twelfth century returned to the scientific revolution in the translation from Arabic. If scholasticism was based on Aristotle, Renaissance philosophy, the cornerstone was erected by other ancient authors — Plato. In addition, the Middle ages never strive with man and his place in the structure of the universe, and Renaissance authors did not renounce God. On the contrary, it is the theology they believed the main business of his life.
Renaissance humanism. Almost the only direction of thought is considered to be a Renaissance humanism which was not even a complete philosophical system. Scientists, humanists, Coluccio Salutati, Leonardo Bruni, Niccolo Niccoli only proposed a new educational program — the studia humanitatis, that is, according to Bruni, “the knowledge of those things which relate to life and manners, and to improve and adorn a man.” The program focused on the study of ancient languages such as Latin, ancient Greek, and later Hebrew.
Revolution in art. The art of the Renaissance made a real revolution, but it started not a textbook, Leonardo, Michelangelo and Raphael. One of the most important artistic innovations of the era was oil painting. Since Vasari was considered that invented it, the Dutch master Jan van Eyck (1390-1441). In fact, in Afghanistan, diluted in a vegetable oil pigments were used in the VI century and to Northern Europe oil painting came to the XII century. However, van Eyck brought this technique to virtuosic perfection. In Italy oil painting entered as an overseas fashion: ferrarez Cosimo Tura studied it works by Flemish Rogier van der Weyden from the collection of his patron, the Duke Lionello d’este, and Antonello da Messina mastered the basics at the Neapolitan court, where Alfonso of Aragon had been brought craftsmen from all over Europe, including the Netherlands. Together with the oil from there to Italy came many compositional models which we now admire in the paintings of Bellini, Carpaccio and other famous artists, optical and lighting effects, hidden symbolism, a play on the secular approval of the portrait as an independent genre.
Science and magic in the Renaissance. Usually in accusing superstitions of the middle Ages, whereas the Renaissance is considered a time of the triumph of reason over prejudice. However, magic played a crucial role in the Renaissance picture of the world, and in the writings of the fathers of the so-called “scientific revolution”. The inventor of the cardan shaft Girolamo Cardano and physicist Galileo Galilei horoscopes; astronomer and mathematician Johannes Kepler at the same time tried to reform astrology; astronomer Tycho Brahe, in addition to astrology, he was fond of alchemy, as well as Isaac Newton. Except that Nicolaus Copernicus magic not interested — but astrology was engaged in his only disciple Johann Retyk.
Invented during the Renaissance. In addition to the printing press (Johann Gutenberg, 1440), telescope (Galileo Galilei, 1609), microscope (Zachary Jansen, Cornelius, Drebbel the end of the XVI century) and is resistant to rolling and pitching of the magnetic compass, the Renaissance gave the world another important device that determined the fate of humanity, — a toilet with flush tank. The inventor of the mechanism was the court poet of Elizabeth I, the translator of Ariosto, sir John Harington: his creation he called “Ajax”, and from the leadership of the Assembly has managed to make a political satire. One of the first instances (1596) was presented to the Queen, but she did not appreciate neither the gift nor the original form of its description — the author for a few years were expelled from the yard. Also during the Renaissance, discovered America. Old world suddenly realized that he is old, and there’s even a new one that will explore, to conquer, to divide and how to explore.
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