Critics of reform believe that in this way Erdogan is trying to legitimize a system of government, which, in fact, is the sole control.
Sunday, 16 April, Turkey held a referendum on introducing the 18th amendment to the Constitution of the country. They will strengthen the power of the President, legalizing the transition from parliamentary government to presidential. The adoption of these changes will mean drastic political change in the modern history of the country.
The new Constitution proposed by the team of the President of Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdogan, in the case of its adoption, will give him the power to appoint Ministers, to present a budget to nominate the majority of the judges of the higher courts and to issue decrees which will have the status of laws. The President can declare a state of emergency and dissolve Parliament. In the Turkish government believe that the amendments to the Constitution will simplify and strengthen the system of governance. Proposed amendments it is proposed to abolish the post of Prime Minister, increase the number of members of Parliament and to make changes in the judicial system. Critics of the new document argue that Erdogan is trying to legitimize a system of government, which, in fact, is the sole control.
Supporters cite the example of other political systems with a strong role of the President – France and the United States – and say that the “vertical of power” necessary for effective governance. In addition, the new Constitution limits the rights of the military: according to her people pertaining to the armed forces will not be able to participate in elections.
Thanks to the new Constitution, Erdogan will remain in power until 2029. It increases the presidential term to five years and allows the President to remain in power for two consecutive terms. If the amendments are adopted, and Erdogan will win plebiscite election in 2019, he will be able to remain in office for another ten years.
Erdogan rejects all accusations of attempting to take control of the courts or to neutralize the Parliament. However, some have pointed out that in Turkish mass-media campaign for the rejection of the reform was paid disproportionately little attention, seeing it as a censorship. Referendum on extension of presidential powers by the military was preceded by a failed coup attempt on 15 July. After her, the Turkish authorities launched a massive cleaning.
More than 80 thousand people, including the military, judges, journalists, deans and professors, lost their positions due to suspicion in support of opposition figure Fethullah Gulen, whom Ankara considers the organizer of the coup. Fethullah Gulen himself has strongly denied his involvement in the attempted overthrow of President Recep Tayyip Erdogan. At the same time, the office for higher education of Turkey demanded to dismiss all 1577 deans from Turkish universities. In the framework of the investigation of the mutiny more than 35 thousand persons were detained, of whom 17 thousand are officially arrested.
Then the influence of Erdogan, the country has been strengthened, and now he wants to enshrine it in law, say the commentators. At the end of March, Erdogan said that the vote for the extension of its powers in the referendum will be the best answer “fascist and violent” Europe, which the President of Turkey in recent weeks fiercely criticizes the nationalist and religious positions.
Turkey’s Constitution was adopted by referendum on 7 November 1982. The current Constitution is the fourth in a row, its authors – the military seized power in a coup in 1980.
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