In the world there are more surprises.
The nature of the Earth never ceases to amaze diversity: over the past ten years biologists have discovered more than 100 000 new species of animals and plants. They are like the heroes of science fiction films, lurk in the remote corners of the planet and survive in extreme conditions. Tell about the most interesting discoveries of the past year.
Arctic satyrinae, Alaska
In 2016 in Alaska found a new species of butterfly Oeneis tanana, which may be the only Arctic endemic state. New butterfly is a hybrid of two other related species are equally adapted to survive in the harsh Northern latitudes. Aspen and spruce forest along the banks of the rivers Yukon and Tanana was free of ice 28 000 — 14 000 years ago. At that time two types of tundra satyrinae began to interbreed, and the offspring was formed as a separate species. From the related species they are distinguished by a white spot on the underside of the wings, and larger size and dark color. Beauties of the Arctic have adapted to the cold that can’t stand other butterflies: their body produces a natural antifreeze.
Octopus “Casper”, the Pacific
Deep-diving vehicle Deep Discoverer is allowed to make another — almost accidental — opening: with the help of oceanographers found in the waters of the Hawaiian archipelago a very unusual octopus. The researchers planned to collect geological samples from the submarine ridge Necker, but in the process the device has found a strange creature sitting on the stone. The animal has not been previously described and does not belong to any known species: it inhabits incredible for cephalopods depth of over 4,000 m. it has no fins, not developed muscles and not enough of the pigment cells chromatophores — that is why the creature almost transparent like the Ghost Casper in a disney cartoon. In honor of him and the octopus got its name.
During the observation of a new kind of marine biologists found that it is characterized by an unusual strategy of parenthood. Female “Ghost” octopus take care of the eggs until the offspring hatch, but because of the low temperatures prevailing at depth, it is a long time — sometimes up to several years. The female egg is wrapped around the whole body, not go out even to feed themselves. In the end, she almost always dies when the young hatch, so because of such a touching care for their offspring unique threatened species.
Desert bees, USA
American entomologists have described a new species of bees that nest right into the Sandstone. Insects survive in high temperatures, scarcity of resources and to escape the heat, dig holes, and do not build hives. Bees expand the small holes with water, making Sandstone similar to that of a porous cheese. According to scientists, this rock — robust housing, allowing the insects to be safe and bezvylazno stay in it for months. The new species was named Anthophora pueblо — similar to the Pueblo people, who lived in the same places and knew how to skillfully handle Sandstone. Adult bees are 10-14 mm in length, they can be found from April to June, during the flowering season. Several bee nests were found in the desert in southern Utah and California’s famous death Valley.
Naked blind fish, Iraq
In the spring of 2016 in the Kurdish region of Iraq, scientists have discovered a very strange type of fish — Eidinemacheilus proudlovei. They belong to the Arctic char from the salmon family, live in inaccessible underground streams and have no eyes, no scales. Due to heavy rains, floods and rising groundwater levels in the Northern Zagros mountains blind fish was thrown to the Ground. Most helpless creatures eaten by birds, but the Iraqi biologists managed to take a few copies for research. In the result, it was found that this new, previously unknown species of char. The skin of these fish is completely devoid not only scales, but also pigments. Assume they feed on the bacteria on the walls of caves, but on the biology of this unusual species scientists don’t know anything anymore. Suddenly appeared the source was soon exhausted, and the fish are now again hidden under the ground.
Spider in the form of a magic hat, India
In the mountain forests of the Indian state of Karnataka biologists found a new species of spider. Body shape distribution of arthropod like a magical hat from the books about Harry Potter — that have decided on which of the faculties to send the newcomer student. So scientists have not had long to come up with a name for the new view: it was called Eriovixia gryffindori in honor of the magician’s hat of Godric Gryffindor. The ability to mimic the spider’s impressive: if necessary, it deflates a way that resembles the form of dried leaf, nothing distinguishable from others of the same tree.
Hairy crab, Indian ocean
Scientists from the University of Southampton (UK) discovered in deep sea thermal springs of the Indian ocean, a hairy crab and several other previously unknown creatures. Such thermal sources are formed due to cracks in the seabed from which the ocean flows incredibly hot (up to +300 °C!) mineralized water. New species of ocean dwellers were discovered near such sources at 2000 km South-West of Madagascar, at a depth of 2.8 km. According to marine biologists, the crab with a hairy carapace is a close relative of crab Hoff, living in the hydrothermal springs near Antarctica. Company crab amounted to two species of snails, gastropod molluscs and polychaete worms — these types were also found for the first time.
“Jellyfish UFO”, the Pacific
In April 2016, scientists from the US have discovered a new species of jellyfish. Appearance unique creatures very similar to UFO: the body is covered with special sensors that begin to glow at the slightest touch. Biologists believe that this method jellyfish deterred predatory fishes and other underwater creatures. Unusual creature managed to capture with a robotic apparatus which can be lowered to a greater depth, maintaining the water pressure. The discovery was made at shoals Enigma about the Mariana trench, at a depth of 3700 m. Animal related to a class of predators as it feeds on not just corals and garbage, but also small fish and plankton. Experts said that “jellyfish UFO” can be carried out in obezbijede condition for several days. Only after the touch of potential prey to the sensor, they begin to move sharply, grabbing her by the tentacles.
Dolphins, Bay of Bengal
Among the discoveries of 2016 — not only do insects and creatures of the ocean depths in the Bay of Bengal American scientists have discovered two new species of marine mammals. This dolphins, kindred white Chinese Indian hump-backed Dolphin and the bottlenose Dolphin. Experts have identified a number of genetic differences that makes these mammals representatives of a new species. The emergence of those off the coast of Bangladesh is a natural process: in the waters of the Bay of Bengal do exist special conditions favorable for the formation of a genetically unique organisms — biologically rich but isolated marine landscape, according to scientists, can lead to new species.
Rainbow snake, Laos
Territory the many discoveries was the Delta of the Mekong river on the Indochina Peninsula: here the experts of the world wildlife Fund (WWF) has discovered 163 new species of animals and plants. One of the most unusual creatures found in Laos — snake of the colubrid family with rainbow stripes on the head. The researchers compared her to the character of David Bowie — ziggy Stardust — and given the scientific name Parafimbrios lao. In the same country found a new species of Gecko with blue mottled skin.
“Klingon” Triton, Vietnam
On the banks of the Mekong in Thailand, scientists have found a surprising crocodile newt Tylototriton anguliceps. He has bright red and black color, although it lives in a green landscape. WWF believe that Triton looks similar to the planet Kling from the Saga “Star trek”. And Thai island of Phuket have discovered no less fantastic lizard: Agama Phuket horned wood similar to little dragon — her head and back are studded with long thorns.
© 2017, z-news.link. All rights reserved.