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How to survive the winter: the main rules

Как пережить зиму:  главные правилаCold, snow and strong wind can be dangerous to health in winter is not only easy to get sick, but also to hypothermia or injury from falling on ice

Traditionally, in the Ukraine December – not the most frosty month. However, even in – 10C and snow can seriously harm your health. How to behave in order not to freeze and not get injured in the winter.

Hypothermia and frostbite

Annually to hospitals received victims with varying degrees of hypothermia or frostbite. Doctors ascertain – the number of such patients increases several times in periods of sharp cold snaps.
Hypothermia of the human body occurs due to the lowering of body temperature under the influence of cold (low temperature and high humidity), cold water, snow, etc. Under the influence of these factors occurs hypothermia, in which body heat loss exceeds heat generation. Hypothermia can be mild – the temperature of the human body is reduced to +35-34C, and he becomes lethargic, sleepy, pale skin. The average degree of hypothermia occurs when body temperature drops to +32-31C, man becomes sedentary, he having convulsions, decreased blood pressure and slows breathing, and the skin of the hands and feet become pale and cold to the touch. In severe hypothermia – body temperature is below +30C – man loses consciousness, he having convulsions, sometimes vomiting and uncontrollable urination. The pressure the victim is reduced, and the pulse can be felt only on the carotid arteries. In this case, the person developing complications – pulmonary edema, cerebral hemorrhage in tissues and organs. If the body temperature of the victim in such a state further decreases may occur clinical death from respiratory arrest and heart. Thus, the decrease in body temperature to 34-32 With is considered a critical limit, after which substantially violated an essential function of the body.
Frostbite of any body part occurs from exposure to low temperatures. But if you long to be outdoors, especially at high humidity and strong winds, to freezing even in spring or autumn when the “zero” temperature.
Frostbite there are four degrees. First – the easiest – the degree occurs after brief exposure to low temperature. Affected area of the body pale, after warming – red, but in some cases it may be dark red and swollen. The result of the frostbite, the skin dies, everything returns to normal in 5-7 days. But keep in mind that the first signs of frostbite are sensations of burning, tingling and numbness of the affected area, and then there is skin itching and pain.
Second degree frostbite is also characterized by pallor, cooling and loss of sensitivity, but when warming occurs severe pain, skin itches and burns, and a few days on the affected area of blisters with a clear liquid. On recovery with such a degree of frostbite will take 1-2 weeks. If there was a third degree frost bite, the blisters on the affected area are filling with blood, are purple-red. Skin will wither away two to three weeks, the site of the injury, the scar will remain. Frostbitten nail plate will grow back deformed or not grow back at all. Frostbite fourth degree is dying not only the skin and the layers of soft tissue can affect the bones and joints. The affected area becomes dark blue, while warming quickly appears and increases in size swelling, but the blisters do not appear (if the blisters appear, this indicates that the frostbite is not only the fourth but also the third or second degree, the characteristic feature of which are the blisters).

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In order not to suffer, being in the cold, first thing you need to dress correctly – wear thermal underwear and warm layers (between layers should remain a layer of air that holds heat) clothes, hats, scarves, gloves, wool socks and a spacious dry shoes with warm insoles. Outerwear should not be. Exposed parts of body before going out lubricate fat cream, and metal jewelry is to leave the house.
Before going out in the cold should eat nutritious hot food and tea. Prolonged exposure to the frosty air you need to move, straining the muscles of the limbs, grind and stretch your fingers, exercise. Should not be cold to drink alcohol – it only creates an illusion of warmth, at the same time, contributing to faster heat loss. It is better not to smoke in the cold, as it impairs blood circulation and makes the limb more susceptible to cold.
The chance of frostbite increases if you are in the wind, so such places should be avoided. Don’t moisten your skin, and go out into the cold with wet hair, wet clothes or shoes.
If the cold affected cheeks, nose or ears, it is not necessary to grind them gloves or snow, it can lead to irritation or trauma to the skin. It is not necessary to remove the cold shoes with frostbitten feet – they are swollen and you won’t be able to put on shoes. If you feel the beginning of hypothermia – you need as quickly as possible back into heat. After a long stay in the cold you need to ensure that no frostbite of the hands, feet, ears, nose.
It should be remembered that most frostbite affects children and the elderly. In this case, the most serious of frostbite occur as a result of intoxication, according to statistics.

Injuries on the ice

Every year doctors provide aid to the thousands of Ukrainians who was injured when falling on ice or snow. However, there are a few rules that will help if not to avoid falling, to minimise its consequences.

For more safe walking on icy pavement on the shoes should wear “ice cleats” or stick on the soles of a band-aid, duct tape or pieces of foam. You can also smear the sole of superglue and put it on the sand – grains of sand will help of shoes do not slip. Walking on ice is best suited footwear with outer soles of microporous or other soft basis without high heels.
To avoid serious injuries during ice it is necessary to be always at the ready, walking slowly, stepping on the entire sole. Hands should be free, and they should not be kept in pockets. When the balance need to try to sit down, this will help to stay on his feet. In the fall it is desirable to group and strain muscles, while hitting the asphalt – roll on the side. This will help to soften the blow.
It should be remembered that during the ice should not step on manhole covers, walk near the edge of the roadway or to cross it. It is especially dangerous to walk in the ice in a state of alcoholic intoxication.
If the ice on the road, the elderly and pregnant women should try not to leave the house before the ice would be covered with sand or salt.
In addition, in the cold season in the cities is better to stay away from walls, closer to the middle of the sidewalk – special health hazards are icicles that may fall from roofs and protruding parts of buildings (especially dangerous they become in a period when melting ice and snow).

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SARS and influenza

The widespread belief that you can get sick with a cold or flu because of the cold, not quite true since both of these diseases are infectious. However, the cold can act as adverse factors, resulting in reduced local immunity, and the body begins to worse to deal with pathogens, and the likelihood of getting sick increases.

Not to get sick in the winter, doctors advise to observe some rules. First and foremost, avoid contact with people who have symptoms of disease and to limit visits to places with large concentrations of people. Also need part wash hands with soap and water, do not touch your eyes, nose or mouth with unwashed hands, avoid hugs, kisses and handshakes. When sneezing or coughing mouth and nose is better to cover the film, but with a disposable tissue, which immediately after use should be discarded. Also need to air the room in which you are.

In addition, in order not to get sick, it is important to avoid hypothermia, eat a healthy diet, get enough sleep and avoid fatigue.

As for the flu, doctors say that the most reliable way to prevent it is vaccination. Risk of infection after vaccination still remains, but the disease will proceed more easily and without danger to life.

If you have any symptoms you should consult with your doctor.
In the preparation of the material has been used the recommendation of the Ministry of health and SES.

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