Summarized key points of the initial stage of the historical process of social reorganization heterogeneous in their tribal and social structure of the mixed population of the former provinces of the Roman Empire in the new public reproductive organisms of the future (the beginning of its formation) of the New West.
The emergence in the West, public relations of vassalage.
According to research by one of the reputable Medievalists Stephen Lebeca (History of France. Vol. 1. The origin of the Franks), in the 5th-6th centuries in Gaul “reigned… the regime of personality rights, in accordance with which every man obeyed the statutes of his people [according to Roman law this is the essence of “rights of peoples” – approx. V. V.]. But in the numerous trials encountered persons the following different systems… there was a process of fusion of elites in Gaul …… there was no formal ban on marriage between Romans and barbarians. …Finally, acted the legislative power of kings…”
In the 5th-6th centuries in Frankish Gaul, the failed attempt by Royal authorities to subordinate the life of the Franks living in Gaul, the institutions of Roman law, which has long been over the centuries guided the daily life of the population of the Roman Gaul of the South and center of this Roman province. It took codification with the simultaneous innovation of customary law Salic francs, the result of which was the “Salic law” (Pactus Legis Salicae). It lasted for three centuries – the 6th – 9th century. Salic (“Maritime” or “seaside”) by the Franks, these Franks were called because their tribes several centuries ago, settled at the mouth of the Rhine (present-day Rotterdam in the Netherlands) and along the coast North and South from the mouth of the Rhine, including the coast of modern Holland and Belgium.
Codification was carried out on Latin men that were educated in the Roman way, widely use the term of Roman law, because legally thought in accordance with the logos of the Roman law, which included, among other things, also the right of peoples, not only the right of Rome. Other terms except for the terms of Roman law, and other education were not. In the “Salic law” as all other “Truth” or “Law” the other “barbarian kingdoms” of the West, which appeared in the times – this is a very specific source about the real relations of relevant “barbarians” even for tens, if not hundreds, of years after the manufacture of such “codes”, not to mention the previous times.
The relationship of vassalage from Salic Franks first started regularly (not occasionally) to introduce only the second future of the Carolingians – Charles Martel (son of Pepin majordomo 2nd), and implement this relationship he started not earlier 720-730 years. However, the system built a relationship of vassalage, legalizing them and giving them a universal legally binding, only Charlemagne (son of Pepin the 3rd), and then only around the time when he Pope was crowned (800 a year) as the Emperor, like the Emperor of the Roman Empire.
Here is what S. Lebec about the relationship of vassalage established legislatively by Charlemagne: “Now in this system, every large or medium landowner, and it is among them now recruited personnel for the army, dubbed the state of the king’s private service to another person. And personal commitments on the recommendation assumed the vassal towards his suzerain, was much more constraining: in exchange for protection and material assistance, they turned vassal to servant Madam, is able to give him any moment of their time and power, their advice and life. The legal origins of private liabilities back to the contract or the Roman “of commendation complete” (which is assigned the rights and obligations of a free man in relation to his patron), and to the laws of the German military partnership used merowingischen kings to consolidate their military service members of military squads.”
For historians, Medievalists West undoubted fact – the relationship of vassalage during the first three centuries after the conquest Gaul and until Charles Martel, was solely and only the relationship between “kings” and “the military team” in the first place. But Charles Martel belongs not to the Merovingians and the Carolingians. And second, these relations of vassalage initially the Franks were the only relations concerning military service in the “military retinue of the king.”
Thirdly, the relationship of vassalage was not a relationship that would be characterized by all the Franks, or at least the Salic Franks as such, nor was a relationship that would be characterized the German tribes in General. But the prototype of these relations of vassalage emerged and legally developed design, and, therefore, already was widespread in practice, in Roman law in the Roman Empire, and not at its sunset, and in its heyday under the guise of commendation complete, the relationship between patrons and their clients, in the fourth.
The relationship of vassalage is not the “barbarians” brought into the territory of the former Roman Empire, but the contrary – that the Romans at all times of the historical existence of the Roman Empire regularly and systematically engage in such relationships and was to them, as well, and taught these relations of those “barbarians” who were in the service of the Romans. But long-term and broad development of relations of vassalage to the Roman Empire is not led to the transition from slavery to feudalism. Franks not less than five hundred years trying to master these Roman relations as relations within the “team” members and their “leader”. And only over the following hundred years through trial and error Salic Franks finally found the method and bases of distribution of these, the source of Roman origin, relations of vassalage for everything other than relationships within “the military retinue of the king”, relationship inside a recreated (reborn) Salic Franks “the Judeo-Messianic Roman Empire”.
The social relations of vassalage, as taught by the “Soviet Marxism-Leninism”, is the basis, the quintessence of feudal social relations. Following Engels and Dzhugashvili (Stalin), social scientists and historians of the USSR contended as not to be questioned dogma: feudal relations as relations of “military democracy”, originally inherent in all nomadic conquerors, which formed the basis of the organization of the conquerors in the ruling class. As a result of this, as well as due to “more progressive relations of production”, supposedly inherent to Germanic invaders during the conquest of the Roman Empire and therefore, set them according to the dogmas of “Marxism-Leninism”, and that there was a feudal mode of production in Western Europe. Another significant “factor in the victory of the feudal mode of production” in Western Europe, and therefore its bearer and Creator of the German conquerors on the Roman Empire, according to these dogmas, is the “revolutionary struggle” slaves and colonies against the class of slave-owners and slave-owning relations in the Roman Empire.
But back from the realm of the illusory consciousness (ideology) in the history. In the “History of France” Lebec writes further about this relationship: “the Ritual of entry into vassalage relations were, of course, already codified when, in 757, according to “Annales Royales”, “the Duke of Bavarian Tassilo arrived at Compiegne with his retinue and in accordance with the customs of the Franks had recommended himself to the vassals, cementing the agreement with a handshake with king Pepin. The Duke promised to be faithful to him and his sons Charles [the future Charles the Great], Karamanou, sworn on the relics of Saint Dionysios, pledged to be loyal to seniors every day of his life, and repeated the oath on the relics of saints Martin and Germain. Came along with him the most noble and the most noble as Ukrainians in the presence of the king promised to remain faithful towards the king and his sons and sworn in the same revered places.” In this document, where the problem first set out with such clarity, perfectly illustrated the strength of the commitments sealed with a handshake (we are referring to the United the hands of vassal — since this posture was the posture of a praying Christian — invested in the hands of his Madam): we are talking about the exchange of… energy, the vital substance. Such exchange of vows, in this case repeated in several places on the most revered relics, gives a spiritual dimension promising salvation in heaven and in the mortal life.”
Corporation spiritual kinship from the Salic Franks, and the colonization of Gaul by them.
Among the many institutions “Salic law” for the first time has legalized the Institute of “non-kinship”. This Institute, opposite institution of “adoption”, or the negative institution of “kinship adoption” (adoption of the individual of the genus). Both of these Institute (of the”adoption” and “non-kinship”) provided for the Commission of a public ritual associated with the pronunciation of the oath formula by which the accepted personal liabilities associated with relationship, in relation to the group that first were a group of blood relatives (originally) or becomes originally the one who makes the appropriate personal obligation to this generation.
In the image and likeness of this was also created and a “squad” (gang, gang) Frankish “leaders”, later proclaimed “kings”. And much later – from the time of Charlemagne, that is, since the 9th century, also formed a “squad” vassals of each of the overlords (cartridges on Roman law). According to the views of these “barbarians” such “brigade” (first leader or king, and then overlord) is nothing else but “kind”, but leading through relationship not through the female line, and in a specifically male line. For the this specific male line here is not the paternal line; it is of the highest institutional authorities, arising from the war is the Imperium (Supreme military and political power) at the Roman way.
This species has the highest institutional power, denoted by the Roman term “Imperium“, in the 4-5 centuries there was a close similarity also with the “barbarians” in one form or another were in the service of the Roman Empire in the preceding century. And another, more ancient and directly associated with the considered relationship, the right of auctor (the”author” as the discoverer of land, conqueror of territories) – the Romans themselves were also at times their own “barbarism” and on the same basis as that all of the later “barbarian”.
In abstracts of the books of Morgan, Kovalevsky and other experts on the history and institutions of ancient society Marx observed in the last years of his life that “cooperative” or “gang” were one of the primary forms of corporations, spiritual kinship, created by representatives of the Celts (Gaelic Scotland), as well as the representatives of the Slavic and Germanic tribes. Such corporations arose, in special cases, to conduct the activities, which were activities of the tribe or its structural units (genus, family, communities) as such, as well as for solving problems, which are not subject to the decision of the tribe or its structural unit as a whole. Such corporations were created to implement (at their own risk participants) armed expeditions with the purpose of robbery (“raiding economy”), or in search of new territories (land), suitable to become a new feeding territories of the tribe. Actually later than the Frankish squads, squads of Normans and Vikings is exactly the same in its public nature phenomenon.
The “leader” of this “gang” (gang, militia) does not necessarily, and generally was not a tribal chief or head of any of his delivery, but was only one of the participants in such co-operative, the artel elected its leader. This is the “military democracy” in its simple form. Another thing is that the “leader of the gang” in its origin, as a rule, was the son of the former “leader of the gang”. It was more often than most of these “gang”, are systematically engaging in “raiding economy”, has been active for a long time exceeding the period of “armed activity” of a generation. Or “leader of the gang” came from the military aristocracy of his tribe, having as a consequence the benefits (not only in actual military training) before other participants of the farm on their willingness to the leadership team (a team).
Extremely important fact of Salic Franks had settled in Gaul (the territory of the province of the Roman Empire) not the tribes; it was not a relocation of the tribe, but it was colonization, implemented by “team” headed by its “chief.” It was not a public matter nor a single tribe of Salic Franks, nor the Union of their tribes, but it was a private matter of volunteers, recruited the “leader of the gang” from different related tribes Salic Franks. This “gang” was not a public body consanguinity, but by the Corporation of spiritual kinship, which, naturally developing to its logical end, eventually constituted itself as such through the adoption of Christianity the whole “gang” headed by its “leader” by the name of Clovis in December of 498 years.
The question of the “dynasty of the Merovingians”, the degrees of kinship between her first three “representatives”, the circumstances and date of “government” each of them are still controversial among modern historians, Medievalists France, Belgium, Holland, Germany and other Western countries on these topics more hypotheses than established facts. But whatever it was, but the fact of the baptism of Clovis with all his three thousand warriors is not contested by anyone (there is debate about the date of baptism). This squad baptism of Clovis as a Corporation spiritual kinship has completed the final allocation of all the Franks as sometimes they (the tribes of Franks) public body. The tribes of Franks was still far from conversion to Christianity. Is the allocation of “the army of the king” as a special Corporation of a spiritual relationship lasted half a century (three generations), the time of the colonization of Gaul under the leadership of those who are called the Merovingians.
Precisely because of this “production” (colony as a nursing area with all of its population) that a particular Corporation could not be the property of any one tribe or the Union of tribes Salic Franks. The colony with all the equipment, purchased it this “gang of colonialists,” were property of the “farm” to be divided among its participants according to the rules of the “farm” (of the Corporation). After a few centuries something very similar, although with the appropriate changes, again as “Norman conquest” of Britain, who played in establishing Britain as the state’s role is no less key than the conquest of Gaul, the Salic Franks in the development of France and all the continental West.
The colonization of Gaul a “retinue” of Salic Franks was not the conquest of other tribes or people, and substitution of higher institutional (state) power and the “legions” of the fallen Rome. As a consequence, “the leader of the gang” at the same time became and was, if not the successor of Emperor of Rome, at least, the successor to the Roman Governor of the province of Gaul. As such he became, and was, above all, for the majority of the population of this former Roman province and the Roman-Gallic nobility in particular. That’s why he “rightly” became known as the “king” just as it happened in other former provinces of the Roman Empire with the leaders of the “gang of barbarians”, which became the successors of the Roman rulers of the provinces concerned.
Therefore, for all the tribes of the Salic francs, did not leave their feeding territories and not to sever ties with them, this “king” was not a member of any of these tribes, and obliged to resign myself to their institutions. So that the appropriate tribe or tribes had to conquer Gaul and to convert it into their property, in part of its feeding territory or to their new feeding territory, setting over it his institutional power. But it was not, and therefore from now on, i.e. after the recognition of the Merovingians the Supreme institutional authority in Gaul, the population of the provinces of the Roman Empire, moving into its territory, any of the tribes of Franks was obliged to respect the institutions established and supported by the highest institutional authority of Gaul.
The new “king” was carried out by the highest institutional authority in Gaul, along with “native” who created this “king”, and all those spiritually-related “genera”, which collectively represent another “Union of tribes”. As the totality of such “births” and “tribes” in a relationship with “king Christian,” Salic Franks could not take the Roman Church, primarily the Roman-Gallic know have fallen in the service of “king”, and all the other Gauls.
Hence, from the perception and evaluation of the Salic Franks encountered the social conditions arose the right of the king and members of his new “family” (his whole “team-cooperative” as a whole and individually) on land within the whole of Gaul, in settling on this land for any new “colonists”. But here comes the exception of the right to inherit land from the mother the rights of communities francs occurring on the territories of Gaul, as well as the transferability of property is not one of the family members on the maternal side, and “new men’s line” defined by membership of the relevant Corporation of spiritual kinship.
From these social conditions there is also a neighborhood local community instead of tribal territorial communities, for it is not the tribe, and not even born as a whole, but separate “families” moved to this place the Franks, creating a new compact settlement or becoming a part of the former first settlement. But the latter, especially in the beginning of colonization occurred much less frequently as a rare exception to the General rule. Hence the right of every human being to settle in any village, but with the consent of all members of the village (with the right to vote in this village community), or based on rights granted by the king, or the expiration of the one year period of limitation for filing claims by any member of the community. This right will soon become one of the rights that constitute free from personal dependence of the townspeople – burghers.
Specific transition to Patriarchy in the process of “revival of the Roman Empire”.
Set “Salic truth” the punishment for stealing someone else’s wife indicates that in the former provinces of the Roman Empire, controlled by the Salic Franks, all men and not just men-Franks, systematically violated the institutions of marriage and property relations in terms of matriarchy. But the transition from matriarchy to Patriarchy Salic Franks, judging by the same “Salic law”, it is has not yet been completed. And in terms of matriarchy is undeniable and unquestionable institutional dominium women not only over all property of the relevant kind, but above all to marriage, which may or may not join members of the genus regardless of their sex.
Stealing someone else’s wife under the domination of the institutions of the matriarchy – it is unthinkable and impossible. But the “Salic law” provides for such a crime, while punishing him about the same as for murder (they are combined in one Chapter). This indicates that the population in all settlements was so mixed that there is no reason to speak of territorially compact settlement of the tribe or Union consanguineous tribes. But it points also to the absence of one nation, instead of which there was only a patchwork of countless small fragments of many different tribes with different cultural and historical origin, characterized by a limited availability of places for their resettlement.
Establishing liability for theft of another man’s wife, the drafters of the “Salic truth” thereby identified the wife’s estate and as if family equated Salic Franks Roman “family,” but only in this part of and just like. In the Roman family paterfamilias (the male head of the family) possessed the dominium (full authority) over all members of his family, without exception, as well, and over all other assets of the family. “Salic law” does not establish responsibility for the theft of women of childbearing of age or older at all but criminalizes the theft of another man’s wife, equating this theft to murder. At the same time “Salic law” codifies the duties and rights of the relatives, that is, of all kinds, to pursue the thief of another man’s wife, as well as the responsibility of the entire family of kidnapper for the crime. And, besides, “Salic law” codifies the inheritance of all property (except land), on the maternal side, except “non-relationship”.
These women are identified not with the family property, but property of the kind that seems to confirm the ancient institutions of matriarchy. At the same time these same it is also alleged and the shift from consanguinity to the spiritual relationship which is the relationship already not in the female line, but in the male line so far as a woman married to a man who refused from the old account of kinship, thus her race reports in a new genus in the family of this man. That is not the kind of female issued married at the time of the marriage accepts his tribal community, her husband, and Vice versa – female, married, becomes a kind of men, if one leads by kinship through the male line. That is, in the case when and if such a man leads by relationship not by blood lines of women and their new, which is spiritual, kinship.
However, this change to the other account relationship is only partial, that is only in part due to Institute “non-relationship”. This is not common and, moreover, is not a universal transfer to the account kinship in the male line, to the Patriarchate. It is only private and far from complete, not complete and not perfect transition to Patriarchy in particular, that is, in exceptional cases, defined by the institutions “receiving spiritual kinship” and “non-kinship”. One could say that it is a Jesuit’s transition to Patriarchy, but until the advent of the Jesuits themselves still very far away. In the new families created by members of corporations, “refused affinity” with his race at the old women’s line, the score of kinship and inheritance still being in the maternal line, is discharged, and before her ex originally, and before the former came from her husband, but burdened with the obligations of a new spiritual relationship with her husband.
But in reality, we are not talking about the wives of the members of the corporations, spiritual kinship as such – not cared compilers of “Salic truth”. In fact we are talking here about the property of each of the members of the “army of the king” as well as “team overlord” as corporations of spiritual kinship, accumulation and transfer of the property solely and exclusively to the children of members of such corporations of spiritual kinship. According to the institutions of matriarchy, the family of the husband owned all the property, created (in new condition also and purchased) steam (indespicable) family, including all of his daughters. And sons and property, which the woman identified her family to maintain the family economy together with this man taken her line and her own husband, belongs to the family of this wife.
The absolute majority of the total mass of the property of the members of the “army of the king”, as well as any similar Corporation spiritual kinship, especially in the period of actual colonization (assigning all new territory and establishing this Corporation, spiritual kinship of their highest sustainable institutional authority throughout the territory) acquired before and after marriage. And they get the property independently as a kind of his wife and his blood kind. This period of colonization from Salic Franks actually lasted, at least from the 5th to the turn of the 10th century. Claims to such property by his blood kind of the members of the Corporation of king or similar corporations of other overlords, including claims to their daughters as property, are exempted through the institution of “non-kinship”.
And any grounds for claims by the kind of wives on this property, especially for sons, you can get rid of, not speaking openly against the customs of their tribes, only formally observing these customs, namely, formally maintaining inheritance through the female line. But in terms of “non-relationship” and also of the wife (as a consequence of its issuance of marriage for a husband) that inheritance through the female line becomes the inheritance of a line of daughters. And this is the last and the matriarchal law is in reality the succession of the line of kin father, who from consanguinity refused, accepting the kinship of the spiritual.
But formally to preserve the institution of inheritance by daughters is necessary and inevitable as long as the process of romanization will not replace customary law (institutions) francs new right (new institutions) a public body that is still forming. This new right creates a higher institutional authority through precedent-based common law, but in the image and likeness of Roman law, stockpiling and subsequent codification of all such precedents. “Salic law” and similar codes in the West – only the first initial step (by itself a precedent) in the creation of such a new law.
Since the inheritance of property, other than land, the Franks of the time of compilation and application of “Salic truth” (6-9-th century and later) goes through the female line, so far as property interests compels the members of each of such corporations to establish cross-mating within these corporations of spiritual kinship. Not only is the Corporation a “suzerain – vassal”, but the shops also. And Church of a diocese not too far from gone, in spite of celibacy, but in a roundabout way by means of consanguineous unions with relevant corporations “seniors vassals.”
But it is necessary and inevitably leads to pupation for each of these corporations is a snap because of this class, and their short to themselves in the material reproduction of their members, which inevitably leads to the emergence and aggravation of problems of degeneration. And all this together is inevitable and necessary leads to the fact that each bar, playing in the image and likeness of the tribe, thereby becoming not only spiritually different, but also different in their flesh and blood than members of other classes, “a tribe or Federation of tribes”. It is from this awareness that must become and quickly became a universal realization, occurred the expression “blue blood” and “white bone”…
The Guild organization.
We now turn to the craftsmen United in guilds. In most cities of Western Europe belonging to the shop was a requirement for craft classes. “The monopoly of the shop on a certain specialty or profession” was “corporate property” of the corresponding Department (Marx). The guilds arose and developed together with the development of new cities in Western Europe, which has become widespread and a significant factor in the economic life of only 12-15 centuries (depending on country) and in the following centuries up to the bourgeois social revolutions.
Every shop, being a monopoly Corporation of craftsmen of the same profession, strictly regulate the production, especially by elected officials making sure that each master – member of shop – produced products of a certain quality to the production of all of its members does not exceed a certain size, so that no one can come into competition with other members of the shop, releasing more products. Shop insure its members and carried out assistance to their needy members and their families in case of illness or death of a member shop. In addition, the workshop was also a military organisation involved in the protection of the city, and in the case of war acted as a separate unit in the composition of the militia. The shop had its own “sacred”, their Church or chapel, and thus represented the Church community.
To sum up everything said about the shop, it is impossible not to conclude that archaic social and territorial organization a highly developed craft within the tribe and tribal Union is the “prototype”, which was created in the workshops. However, in contrast to this antiquity shops now was created not as a community of kinship, namely the Corporation of spiritual kinship. That’s what’s on the surface of society has expressed the essence of what happened a historic coup in the organization of the craft.
The formation of a new community of organisms and their functional bodies.
The formation of estates in the West was carried out by the catastrophic destruction of the social organization of Germanic, Celtic and Slavic tribes, as well as the entire process of social reproduction. Tribes, hence part of the tribal communities, were before distinct functional subdivisions of tribes, broken up essentially the same in their public functions, small social groups, which before were one and the same functional organs of their tribes. Fragments of some tribes, settled in small compact groups among the same fragments of other tribes and the population of the former provinces of the Roman Empire in terms of General social disintegration and administrative chaos, losing touch with their tribes.
All these fragments of the disintegrated public organisms were forced to establish new connections and relationships with each other as with their neighbours, wittingly or unwittingly, creating with them a new social production and reproduction of the organisms. Gradually functionally identical fragments of different tribes formed a future class of the Western countries. But they were formed not as the bodies of the tribe, and as the functional bodies of the new public reproduction of the organisms created are not natural and “unnatural”, because forced by necessity, and even hopelessness as a result of deliberate efforts of people directed owning ideology, mediating the implementation of their individual and group interests.
The formation and activity of any class were fully subordinated to the satisfaction of certain needs (limited by the magnitude of the reproduction of the evolving social organism as an aggregate of the consumer) in the relevant means of life and means of production necessary for the reproduction of the social organism in its historically well-defined parameters. This is subject and subordinate to the institutions of this workshop, as well as the proportions of social production, each of the relevant plant products as commodities. Similarly, it was also with institutions of political and spiritual organization of the emerging social organisms.
The bar there is a category of society (ideology, politics and economy at the same time), the universal form of self-organization of large social groups to implement their corporate institutional power over the process of social reproduction of the corresponding social organism as such in General and over the process of reproduction itself (the social group) as such, in particular. Bar – not the drive belt of the Emperor to the appropriate group of people organized by the Emperor in this social group, but the social protection of its members from the tyranny of the Emperor with his Corporation, as well as from the tyranny of all other corporations. Bar is the universal form of self-regulation (voluntary integration) of diverse historical origin of small social groups in their social (ideological, political, and industrial at the same time) the Corporation of spiritual kinship.
Future members of such large social groups of the new (after the fallen of Rome) in the West, which became their “founding fathers”, as well as all future members of the estates, initially in a situation of a shipwrecked. They, in addition to his “neubitogo island”, their own forces, the natives of this and the neighbouring “Islands”, had only two ideas image, as well as two historical precedent of the social organization of the social organism. Is the idea of the image tribe, which for them has long been there, and the idea-the image of the Roman Empire as the New Israel, which also does not exist, but in fact did not exist in contrast to the tribe.
However, the ideas themselves-the images, and the current public practice of their implementation as forms of private life are not only limited, but also adjusted modifierade and transformirovalsya objective social conditions and the pressing needs of this very public practice, including needs dictated “purely” ideologically and politically. As a consequence, the dialectic of objective and subjective the first time in history gets more and more crucial in all social practice that revolutionairy all this way, making history an inevitable and necessary turning it into a violent struggle of interests and passions boiling.
Vladimir Vasiliev, 1-2 October 2019.
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