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Found the coldest substance in the Universe

Найдено самое холодное вещество во ВселеннойThe researchers used molecules of calcium fluoride, which were placed inside the magneto-optical trap

Researchers from the Centre for cold matter cooled matter to millionths of a degree above absolute zero. Scientists were able to put the record approaching the minimum possible value of the temperature.

Absolute zero is equal to minus 273,15 degrees Celsius, or 0 Kelvin (K). The temperature increase of one degree Celsius is equal to its increase by one Kelvin. Temperature vacuum exceeds absolute zero by 2.7 K due to thermal radiation from the Big Bang and uniformly fills the Universe.

During the experiments, the physicists were able to achieve a share of one trillion Kelvin, by cooling individual atoms, but to do the same thing with molecules, it is not possible. To solve this problem, scientists have combined two of the traditional approach, lowering the temperature of the molecules to record fractions of a degree.
The researchers used molecules of calcium fluoride, which were placed inside the magneto-optical trap. They were cooled with lasers. The material atoms thus absorb photons of radiation and re-emit them, wasting more energy than gaining. However, in this way it is possible lowering the temperature of a molecule only to a certain limit (the Doppler). To overcome this limitation, physicists have used the method of Sisyphus cooling, which uses two moving towards each other the laser beam, which lowers the kinetic energy of the molecules.

Scientists said that the temperature of the cooled in this way molecules reached 50-millionth of a degree. According to researchers, this slows down chemical reactions, which takes the cooled substance, allowing you to observe the mechanisms of their occurrence.

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