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First aid for insect bites

Первая помощь при укусах насекомыхPesky insects – minor negative the summer season.

Almost all arthropods attracted to the heat, humidity, breathing out carbon dioxide and the presence of lipids on the skin surface.

Bees, wasps, hornets and fire ants are insects, whose bites often cause an allergic reaction. Most often, they attack the person with the threat of the nest, as they are social animals.

Often, however, wasps, bees and ants introduced into people’s homes attracted by the food (especially sweet). And it can bite the man. The injection is made by stinger, that is a special unit located on the rear end of the body of these insects. Shot this coupled with a deflation in the wound a venomous liquid, which is formed in special glands.

What are the consequences of insect bites?

Some ants are very aggressive and attack sleeping people (especially critically ill and infants), crawl into the ears, nose, mouth, wounds. Their painful bites can cause an allergic reaction.

Mosquito bites cause itching, as from flea bites. Parasitism lice causes itching, dermatitis and other skin pathological manifestations. Reaction to bed bug bites can occur from itching to anaphylaxis. Also human biting mosquitoes, horseflies, gnats and other Diptera.

In addition to insects, arthropods can bite centipedes, spiders, Scorpions, solpugid, poisonous ticks. The bites of bloodsucking insects (and mites) can lead to the transmission of vector-borne diseases such as malaria, leishmaniasis.

Some other types of insects, whose bites are fraught with infectious diseases:

– Lice can be spread the epidemics of relapsing fever caused by spirochetes.

– Leishmaniasis, caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, is carried by mosquitoes.

– Sleeping sickness in humans and cattle – a group of diseases that are widespread in Africa and known as a Revolver (nagana); are caused by protozoan of the genus Therapool transmitted via the bites of tsetse flies.In unsanitary conditions the fly can play a role in the spread of intestinal infections of humans (such as typhoid, bacterial and amoebic dysentery), as a result of food contamination.

– Tularemia can be spread through the bites of deer flies, bubonic plague by fleas, and the epidemic typhus (rickettsiosis) – lice.

– Various mosquitoes contribute to the spread of viral diseases (such as equine encephalitis, dengue fever and yellow fever) among people and animals.

– Ticks can transmit Lyme disease and other diseases through their bites.

Stages of change reaction to the bites of arthropods

Stage 1 – lack of reaction to the bite

Stage 2 – the appearance of a red papule at the expiration of 24 hours after bite

Stage 3 – the occurrence of blister right after being bitten, and then, 24 h later, papules

Stage 4 – the immediate appearance of a blister without subsequent formation of papules

Stage 5 – immunological resistance and lack of response

Reaction to a sting is of three types

The normal reaction involves the area around the bite with redness, itching and pain. Large local reactions occur when the tumor more than 5 cm in Systemic reactions occur when symptoms are observed in areas of the body distant from the bite.

The symptoms common reactions include pain, swelling and redness around the bite.

A large local reaction will cause swelling on a large area of skin. For example, if the bite occurred in the ankle, swelling can the whole leg.

The most severe reaction to an insect sting is an allergic (described below). If the insect bite has caused such a reaction, you should call a doctor immediately. The symptoms of acute allergic reaction (anaphylactic reaction) may include one or more of the following:

Light General reactions: urticaria, itching, malaise, fear.

Common reactions: symptoms of the 1st type are appended shortness of breath, abdominal pain, nausea, dizziness, vomiting.

Severe General reactions: in addition to previous manifestations joins dyspnea, dysphagia, hoarseness, stray thoughts, fear.

Shock: in addition to the above symptoms, cyanosis, drop in blood pressure, collapse, defecation, loss of consciousness.

With a simultaneous bite of a large number of insects develop toxic reactions. Symptoms appear a few hours in the form of swelling, headache, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, seizures, stupor, coma

Methods for the treatment of normal and local allergic reactions

– Clean affected area with warm water and soap to remove the microorganisms containing the particles left by certain insects (e.g., mosquitoes). These particles can lead to infection of the wound, if not addressed in a timely manner. Refrain from scratching because this may cause damage to the skin and, as a result, to infection.

– If an insect stung in the hand, immediately remove any rings from your fingers.

– After a sting of a bee, usually in the skin is a sack of venom and a stinger. Need for 30 seconds to remove the sting, not to suffer further effects of the poison. Carefully remove the bag with the poison and the sting with a fingernail or hard object such as a credit card. Do not squeeze the SAC or pull the stinger – this will lead to more intense release of venom into the skin.

– Wash the bite with soap and water, then apply antiseptic.

– Apply bite soothing ointment, for example, hydrocortisone cream, apply dry a sterile bandage.

– If there is swelling, apply to the bite the ice or a cold compress.

– The tick you want to remove, taking care not to tear off shipped in a skin hobotok. Parasite gently pulled, slightly shaking fingers or tweezers. After removing the tick on the skin, as a rule, is characteristic of the wound that could serve as a “gateway” for infection. It should be immediately disinfected with green paint.

In severe systemnearly (chest tightness, nausea, expressed concern that the development of syncope) may require an injection of epinephrine. Antihistamines (e.g., diphenhydramine 25-50 mg) administered intramuscularly. In the case of bronchospasm is established intravenous catheter and infusion therapy is carried out.

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