Soon these machines will be available on the consumer level.
Google’s specialists published in the journal Nature article, which cite evidence of the quantum of superiority — the ability of quantum computers to perform tasks that just.
Proof scientists are based on the model of guessing the toss side of the coin. A conventional computer performs this operation keeping the two numbers and every time selecting from them randomly one. In order to simulate 50 tosses of the coin, you just need to repeat this operation 50 times.
In the case of normal coins, but if the coin behaves as a particle, obeying the laws of quantum mechanics becomes more difficult. We can not know whether the coin falls heads or tails up, not knowing about all the other coins. This phenomenon is called quantum entanglement, and the problem of simulation of coin tosses — quantum selection.
Ordinary computers work sequentially, so they cannot “throw” at the same time 50 coins. Therefore, scientists say Google, to get the result of a simultaneous throw of 50 coins, quantum sampling requires storing all possible configurations of all 50 shots. Since one bit can store information about only one of two States, heads or tails, all possible configurations of the throw 50 coins would require thousands of terabytes.
It was then on the stage come quantum computers. They are based on qubits, which can adopt multiple States simultaneously. This allows you to keep the distribution of the probabilities of all configurations at once by using one qubit for each coin. For this reason, according to Google, the quantum sample will be a simple task for quantum computers.
They had a demonstration model set with 9 coins with 9-kubango quantum computer. “If a similar error rate will be achievable in future devices with 50 qubits, we will explore the quantum dynamics, is not available to us in any other way”, — stated in the plan of the company. Thus, quantum computers in the near future can be used to study complex scientific problems and cease to be practically useless as it is now, says New Scientist.
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