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Experts recalled what moles are considered to be dangerous

Эксперты напомнили, какие родинки считаются опаснымиThe sooner the disease is diagnosed, the higher the chances of survival.

Not every mole is dangerous, however, to determine whether promises or that a pigmented lesion on the skin problems, can only specialist. And there are a few symptoms that should compel you to be wary and consult a doctor. After all, procrastination can have a sad end.

Experts do not cease to repeat: the earlier the disease is diagnosed, the higher the chances of survival. Launched melanoma, or skin cancer, today in most cases is considered incurable, but hope that soon the situation will change radically, have already appeared.

According to who, every year, the world record average of 132 thousand new cases of melanoma. The prevalence of this disease in Russia over the last 10 years increased by 52% and mortality by 23%. In every fourth case of melanoma we have detected at stages III-IV. Scientists explain the rapid spread of the disease devastating effects of insolation (solar ultraviolet radiation), and even in the Northern latitudes, which is associated with the steady depletion of the ozone layer. According to forecasts, every 10% decrease of ozone concentration in the atmosphere would lead to 4500 (!) new cases of melanoma of the skin.

Melanoma of the skin related to highly malignant tumors arising from cells called melanocytes which form the pigment melanin. Most often it is a pigmented lesion, which the people called the mole. Melanoma is very aggressive. Most often the disease begins in young and middle age (from 15 to 50 years) and very rapidly spreading metastases throughout the body.

Pigmented lesions on the skin (moles or nevi), which often mask the melanoma, occur in 90% (!) population. Those whose size of moles greater than 5 mm, and their total number is 11-25, the risk of melanoma 1.5 times higher than those who have less than 10 moles.

SOME MOLES CAN BE CONSIDERED A THREAT?

Professor Leo Demidov, a member of the Advisory Board of the who melanoma, the representative of GU ronts im. N. N. Blokhin of the RAMS, said that to determine such a layman will be quite difficult, yet there are several signs which are a significant reason for the visit to the doctor. “People used to call nevi moles and birthmarks – it’s kind of as birth, says Professor Demidov. – So, those moles that appeared really from birth, or rather before the age of two years, in most cases do not become melanomas. Melanoma most often arises from moles, acquired in the process of life. These appear at puberty and at the 3rd or 4th decade. And, of course, melanoma is not formed from all of the acquired moles. The second important symptom – the dynamics of growth. It’s not so easy to notice. For example, there is a spot on the skin is 1.5 mm. a year later, her diameter is 3 mm, and in a year or 5 mm. This object is the so-called dysplastic nevus, which can degenerate into melanoma. But these things rarely pay attention. Many people think: that I had always. Of course, not all nevi with a size of 5-6 mm melanoma, but the growth potential (which is 1-2 mm per year) always requires the greatest care”.

However, as continued Leo V., these two symptoms are not sufficient to make any conclusions. You need to consider other signs. First of all, the shape of the mole. Be it right or wrong? Is there any asymmetry? If the form of a mole is asymmetrical, this is another reason to bother the doctor. The fourth symptom is the color. “People say that he wasn’t black. This is nonsense, says Professor Demidov. In itself color does not matter – it can be black and brown and light brown. The role of diversity, the presence in the mole two or three shades. And finally, the fifth symptom is the border of a mole. Pay attention to the edges – they clear or faded and blurred, as if dissolving into the skin? The latter may indicate melanoma”.

Professor Demidov says that in some countries even adopted the methodology of ABCD, where A – asymmetry, B – border, C – colour and D – diameter.

We are not against sun, but it is useful as long as it does not cause burns. It is especially important to protect children from them. Childhood sunburns are just as harmful as in adulthood

RISK FACTORS

To melanoma are more likely fair-skinned with lots of moles. Another risk factor is sunburn. “We are not against sun, but it is useful as long as it does not cause burns. It is especially important to protect children from them. Childhood sunburns are just as harmful as into adulthood,” says Professor Demidov.

Experts urge people to regularly conduct self-examinations moles and not to neglect visits to the doctors. But the Russians, alas, very poorly informed about the disease, according to doctors, and therefore often turn to doctors when to do something too late. “In many countries, including Russia, there has been a rapid increase in the incidence of cutaneous melanoma continues Leo Demidov. – In Russia, melanoma holds a leading place for the increase in mortality. This is largely due to the lack of awareness and late diagnosis of the disease”.

Meanwhile, the life expectancy of melanoma depends on the tumor stage. So, early on the tumor thickness is about 1 mm, and after surgical removal of 90% of the patients get the chance to live five years without relapses. In the later stages also appear distant metastasis, and in this case mortality during one year up to 75%.

HOW TO WAKE UP THE IMMUNE SYSTEM?

Until recently, to treat the disease in the later stages, doctors had virtually nothing. Today, however, with the advent of a new direction – immunologii – the situation has changed. Many laboratories around the world now are developing in this direction.

So, normally, the immune system must not attack itself. However, when meeting with carcinogenic cells and cells of the immune system suddenly “going blind” and allow them to lead in the body. The essence of immunologii – to restore immune control of the tumor, that is to get the immune system encounters cancer cells, Wake up. Already known receptors, allowing the immune system to sleep state, is a CTLA-4 and PD-1. It is proved that if human lymphocytes have these receptors, and tumor cells are similar molecules, the immune system will not respond to the tumor and the disease will begin to progress. Task immunologicheskikh drugs to inhibit these receptors, causing the immune system “Wake up” and begin to recognize the tumor.

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