Researchers were interested in the gravitational lensing of distant galaxies.
Astronomers have created the deepest of three-dimensional maps of the distribution of matter, covering a vast area of the sky. Explain what the depth means the maximum distance from the Earth covered by the map. The data will help to better understand the nature of dark matter and dark energy.
The achievement described in the scientific article, a Preprint of which is published on the website arXiv.org a group headed by Shian-Yu Wang (Shiang-Yu Wang) from Flatirons Institute in the United States.
The review has been called Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC), which can be roughly translated as “ultrahigh camera”. It runs on the Subaru telescope located in Hawaii. The map was compiled according to the first year of observations, for five years.
Explain what it’s about. According to General relativity, the gravitational field is a curvature of space-time. Because of him the beam of light passing near a massive object changes its trajectory. Tending the body works as a lens focusing the radiation of a distant object.
This effect is repeatedly tested and is widely used by astronomers. For example, it gives the possibility to see very distant objects by focusing light from them and actually working as a telescope. So were opened the most distant observed to date planet and a single star.
In addition, learning assembled such a “telescope” light, you can install as distributed in space focusing its mass. This is what interested researchers. It is important that the method “intersect” as ordinary matter and dark matter.
Astronomers have obtained images of ten million galaxies undergoing gravitational lensing. The observed sky area was 137 square degrees. According to this they made a three-dimensional map of the distribution of matter.
This is not the first map covering a similar or even larger area on the sky, but such counterparts HSC is characterized by its depth. Previous surveys of this type concerned only nearby (in cosmological scales) of the neighborhoods of the Galaxy.
The authors compared their results with predictions made using data from Planck space telescope observing the CMB. The universe according to the HSC was more homogeneous. But rigorous statistical analysis showed that this difference is within the unavoidable error of measurement.
One of the main applications of their work is to clarify the nature of dark energy.
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