Alluring and frightening space.
Although in recent decades, the science is moving forward exponentially, people’s knowledge about space still tend to zero. It is not surprising that scientists are constantly discovering in the Universe of new, sometimes seemingly fantastic phenomena. About the hottest ten such discoveries made in recent times will be discussed in this review.
1. “Space shield” of humanity
NASA researchers have discovered a surprising and beneficial by-product of radio programs: anthropogenically created “bubble VLF (low frequency)” around the Earth that protects people from certain types of radiation. The Earth also has radiation belts van Allen natural origin, in which solar energetic particles are caught in the “trap” the magnetic field of the Earth.
But now scientists believe that the cumulative electromagnetic radiation from the Earth inadvertently created a sort of radioactive barrier that deflects some of the cosmic high-energy particles, constantly causing damage to the Earth.
2. Galaxy PGC 1000714
Galaxy PGC 1000714 is probably the “most unique” ever observed by scientists. It is an object of type RSA with 2 rings around it (something it is similar to Saturn, only the size of a galaxy). Only 0.1% of galaxies have the same ring, but PGC 1000714 unique in that it boasts two. The core of the galaxy age of 5.5 billion Years consists mainly of old red stars. Around him is a large, much younger (0,13 billion years) of the outer ring, which Shine more hot young blue stars.
When scientists looked at the galaxy in several wavelengths, they found an unexpected imprint of the second, inner ring, which is much closer to the core in terms of age, and it is not connected with the outer ring.
3. Exoplanet Kelt-9b
The hottest exoplanet discovered at the moment, hotter than many stars. On the surface recently described Kelt-9b, the temperature rises to 777 3 degrees Celsius, and it is her dark side. And on the side facing the star, the temperature is approximately 4 327 degrees Celsius – almost same as on the surface of the Sun. The star in the system which is this planet, Kelt-9, is the star of A-type, and is located 650 light years from Earth in the constellation Cygnus.
Stars of type A are among the hottest and this particular individual “child” by galactic standards, since he is only 300 million years. But as the star expands, its surface will eventually absorb Kelt-9b.
4. Collapse inward
It turns out that black holes can form without a Titanic supernova explosions or the collision of two extremely dense objects such as neutron stars. Apparently, stars can “fall inside”, turning into a black hole is relatively quiet. In the study “Large binocular telescope” was discovered thousands of potential “failed supernova”.
For example, star N6946-BH1 had enough mass to become a supernova (about 25 times bigger than the Sun). But pictures show that it is only for a short time shone a little brighter and then just disappeared into the darkness.
5. The magnetic field of the Universe
A heavenly bodies produce magnetic fields, but the biggest ever discovered fields are formed due to gravitational bound clusters of galaxies. A typical cluster covers about 10 million light years (for comparison, the size of the milky way is 100,000 light years). And these gravitational titans create an incredibly powerful magnetic field. Clusters are essentially clusters of charged particles, gas clouds, stars and dark matter , and their interactions create chaotic present “electromagnetic magic.”
When galaxies are too close to each other and contact, flammable gases on their borders shrink, eventually firing arc “relics”, which extend to a distance of six million light-years, potentially even more than the cluster that produces them.
6. The accelerated development of galaxies
The early universe is full of mysteries, one of which is the existence of pile mysteriously “fattened” galaxies which should not exist long enough to gain that size. In these galaxies was hundreds of billions of stars (a decent amount even by today’s standards), when the Universe was just 1.5 billion years. And if you look even further into space-time, astronomers have discovered a new type of hyperactive galaxies, which “fattened” these abnormally developed early galaxy.
When the Universe was a billion years, these galaxies predecessors have already produced an insane amount of stars at speeds of up to 100 times the speed of star formation in the milky Way. The researchers found evidence that even in a sparsely populated young Universe galaxies merge.
7. A new type of catastrophic event
X-ray Observatory Chandra have discovered something strange, looking in the early universe. Astronomers Chandra observed a mysterious x-ray source at a distance of 10.7 billion light years. He suddenly became 1000 times brighter and then disappeared in the dark for approximately one day. Astronomers have discovered a similar fancy x-ray bursts before, but this was 100,000 times brighter in x-rays.
Previously in the category of possible perpetrators recorded giant supernovae, neutron stars or white dwarfs, but the evidence did not support any of this events. The galaxy in which the explosion occurred, is much smaller and is far from the previously discovered sources, so astronomers hope that they found “a completely new type of catastrophic event.”
8. Orbit X9
It is generally believed that black holes destroy everything that has the temerity to approach them, but recently discovered white dwarf X9 is the closest orbital body ever approached a black hole. X9 three times closer to the black hole than the Moon is to Earth, so it makes a full rotation in 28 minutes. This means that black hole a white dwarf rotates around itself faster than the average pizza place.
X9 is 15 000-x light-years from Earth in the globular star cluster 47 Tucanae, which is part of the constellation of Toucan. Astronomers believe that the X9 was probably a big red star before the black hole pulled him close and sucked all the outer layers.
Cepheid is a space of “children” aged from 10 to 300 million years. They are pulsating, and regular changes in the brightness make them ideal reference points in space. The researchers found them in the milky way, but they were not sure what it is (because Cepheids are near the galactic core, and almost invisible behind a huge cloud of interstellar dust).
Astronomers, observing-in infrared light, found surprisingly barren “wilderness”, which was not young stars. Several of the Cepheids located near the center of the galaxy, and just outside this region extends a huge dead zone to 8 000 light years in all directions.
10. “Planetary trio”
The so-called “hot Jupiters” – gas balls like Jupiter, but they are closer in structure to the stars than they should be and turn around their stars in orbits closer than mercury. Scientists studied these strange celestial bodies over the past 20 years, registering nearly 300 such “hot Jupiters”, and they all revolved around their stars alone.
But in 2015, the researchers from the University of Michigan finally confirmed what seemed impossible – a hot Jupiter companion. In the system WASP-47 around the star rotates, the hot Jupiter and two absolutely different planets – larger neptunbrunnen and smaller, much more dense, rocky “super-earth”.
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