Everything you need to know about vitamin B12.
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin or cyanocobalamin) is a vitamin that contains essential to the body cobalt and ceanography. The main benefit of this vitamin — hematopoietic function. Also invaluable useful properties of cobalamin in the formation of nerve fibers. Vitamin B12 has a significant effect on metabolism, movement of lipids and carbohydrates in the body.
Benefits of vitamin B12?
The main purpose of the vitamin B12 — normalization of hematopoiesis. In addition, it has a beneficial effect on fat metabolism in liver tissues, optimizes the condition of the nervous system, metabolic processes in the body, lowers cholesterol and stimulates growth. Vitamin B12 participates in the synthesis of DNA molecules, amino acids, affects the processing of fats and carbohydrates.
Vitamin B12 stimulates cell division. From its presence in the body depends on the welfare of those tissues which are most susceptible to intense division in immune cells, blood cells and skin and also cells that make up the upper part of the intestine.
How much do we need?
Recommended daily dose of B12 for people older than 14 years is 2.4 micrograms (of 2.6 mcg and 2.8 mcg for pregnant and lactating mothers, respectively). For vegetarians and vegans, the dose should be much more: 6-30 micrograms per day.
Vitamin B12 for vegetarians
1. Shellfish: scallops, oysters, mussels
Most B12 is found in scallops: 74,2 g per 75 g. wild Eastern oysters contain 26 µg of vitamin B12, and mussels — 18 mcg.
2. Liver: beef, pork and chicken
75 g braised beef liver contain of 52.9 µg of vitamin B12, pork — 15,9 µg chicken is 12.6 mcg. Other sources — liver sausage (10,1 g) and foie Gras (of 7.05 g).
3. Fish: mackerel, herring, tuna, sardines, trout, salmon
75 g Atlantic mackerel contain is 14.3 mcg of B12, and king mackerel — 13,5 mcg. Moreover, vitamin B12 rich Atlantic herring (9,8 g) fresh bluefin tuna (8,2 g), sardines in oil (6,7 µg), prepared trout (5,6 mcg) and salmon (2.6 to 2.8 mcg).
4. Crustaceans: crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp
75 g of crab meat contain almost 8.6 mcg vitamin B12. Other sources: spiny lobster (3 µg), cancer (2,32 g) and shrimp (1.1 µg).
5. Red meat: beef
75 g of ground beef contain 2.4 to 2.7 mcg of vitamin B12. Another good source of B12 — lamb.
6. Eggs: goose, duck, chicken, quail
Most vitamin B12 is contained in the goose eggs: 7.3 µg per 1 egg. One duck egg contains the 3.8 µg, chicken — 0.6 ág, and quail — 0.1 µg of vitamin B12.
Vitamin B12 for vegetarians
1. Fortified tofu
Although fortified foods contain B12, please note that they also contain refined sugar. 250 mg tofu contain 1.0 µg of B12.
2. Cheeses: Swiss, brunost, Parmesan, feta, Gouda, mozzarella
Cheese is made from milk and therefore contains a lot of vitamin B12. 30 g of Swiss cheese contain 0,9 µg brunost — 0,7 mcg, Parmesan — 0.6 ág, feta and Fontina — 0.5 µg, Gouda and Camembert — 0.4 ág, mozzarella and blue cheese — 0.3 micrograms of vitamin B12.
3. Milk: skim and whole
And whole and skim milk contains a lot of B12. 250 ml of skim milk contain 1.3 micrograms B12, while the same volume of milk with 3.25% fat content — 1.1 µg.
Yogurt — one of the best sources of vitamin B12. It also contains protein, potassium, calcium, B vitamins and vitamin D. 230 ml of pure low-fat yogurt contain 1.3 micrograms of vitamin B12.
Vitamin B12 for vegans
1. Bran is high in fiber
Vegans are harder to find sources of vitamin B12. A good option — fortified Breakfast cereals. Bran contain a lot of fiber, essential fatty acids, starch, protein, vitamins and minerals. 28 g bran contain of 7.9 micrograms of vitamin B12.
2. Fortified yeast extract
This product is gaining popularity among vegans in the United States and Europe. The content of vitamin B12 depends on the brand of the extract, but on average, one teaspoon contains about 0.03 µg
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