An incredibly beautiful city.
Berlin is the largest in terms of population (about 3.5 million people) city in continental Western Europe and the second largest metropolis of the European Union after London. Berlin is a recognized center of business, scientific and cultural life of Europe and the world. And, of course, is a city with a rich and dramatic history.
Photos and text of Fame Stepanova
1. On the site of the present metropolis in the Middle ages there were two merchant’s town — Berlin and Cologne (not to be confused with the ancient Roman colony on the Rhine). For the first time in historical sources they are mentioned in the second third of the XIII century. And 1307 are already known to United Berlin. In the XV century it lost its status as a free trading city and became the capital: then and kurfurste margraviate of Brandenburg, Kingdom of Prussia, German Empire, the Weimar Republic, the Nazi Reich, the German Democratic Republic and finally, the modern Federal Republic of Germany.
2. Berlin has always been a stronghold of militant, aggressive ruling regimes, why not just become a real battleground. Berlin has repeatedly entered the foreign troops (French, British, Americans, three Russian). Moreover, a couple of times, the city was subjected to strong destruction in the Second World war was almost totally destroyed. Modern Berlin is a city that is actually restored since the mid XX century, which preserved some historical buildings and sites.
3. Reichstag building.
The idea of construction building for the meetings of the lower house of the Parliament of the United German Empire originated in 1871, the Reichstag was built in 1894. the Representative body worked in the building until February 1933 when the Reichstag burned in a fire. According to one version, he staged recently came to power the Nazis; in any case, they are accused of arson of the Communists (“the process of Georgi Dimitrov”) and used the disaster to reinforce their own regime.
4. Cosmetically restored after the fire the building was virtually abandoned and was not used by administrative authorities of the Third Reich. However, despite this, the storming of the building in April-may 1945 in Soviet historiography became a symbol of victory in the great Patriotic war. After the war the fragments of the building as historical artifacts were preserved the marks of bullets and inscriptions-graffiti made by the soldiers of the red army. In the second half of the XX century, the building ended up in West Berlin and played a supporting role.
5. After reunification in 1990 in the historic building houses the German Bundestag. Your current image and status as one of the main tourist attractions in Berlin the Reichstag was in the middle of 90-ies of the last century after reconstruction: by the famous British architect Norman foster above the building erected glass dome 40 meters in diameter and a height of 23.5 meters. The dome is an observation deck (tourists can get into the Reichstag by appointment), and a conical system of the 360 mirror is used for natural lighting of the courtroom of the German Parliament.
6. One of the main symbols of Berlin — the Brandenburg gate. Six wagon-Quadriga crowned them in 1795. Initially, the chariot was ruled by the goddess of peace., and the sculptor Johann Gottfried Schadow devised the figure of a naked, but the Emperor, Friedrich Wilhelm II ordered to “dress” goddess in a Cape. Captured Berlin in 1806, Napoleon ordered to dismantle and remove the sculpture to Paris, humiliating the spirit of Berliners. Only in 1814 the Quadriga came back triumphant, the goddess of peace turned into a goddess of victory Victoria, and her wand added Prussian symbols — the eagle and the iron cross. During the Second World war, the Quadriga was completely destroyed, restored it on plaster casts only in 1957.
7. Berlin was once surrounded by a wall with fifteen gates, they have not survived. Brandenburg gate — built on the site of the medieval in 1791, in the image of the main entrance to the Acropolis. The gate height of 25 meters, width 65, depth — 11 meters. The Central of the five openings have been opened only for the monarch and his family. The Brandenburg gate was badly damaged during the Second World war and was later restored. During the cold war became a symbol of the division of Germany, after they took the Berlin wall. Since 1990 year, by contrast, is a symbol of the reunification of the nation. However, during the destruction of the Berlin wall and the elation of the Germans again suffered heavily again underwent repairs.
8. Potsdamer Platz.
Before the Second World war, Potsdamer Platz with the intersection of the five roads was one of the busiest areas of Berlin. Badly damaged during the war. Across the square was held by the Berlin wall, it is the fragment preserved to this day. Modern Potsdamer Platz is a large business and entertainment centre of Berlin.
9. To Potsdamer Platz is adjoined by the Leipzig area, it was laid out in 1730-ies, because of the octagonal shape is called Octogon, called Leipzig in 1814 in honor of the Battle of Nations. Destroyed during the Second World war. Is actively being restored as a business and shopping center after the reunification of Germany.
10. Sony Center at Potsdamer Platz.
A complex of seven buildings (residential apartments, offices, entertainment and shopping centres) under the dome, which symbolizes the Japanese mount Fuji. In the Sony Center has one of the world’s largest IMAX cinema with a screen area of 500 square meters.
11. Views of the Leipzig area from the Potsdamer Platz. At Potsdamer Platz on top of the tower, Kolhoff is a viewing platform Panoramapunkt, which serves the fastest Elevator in Europe on the 24th floor (100 meters), he “takes off” in just 20 seconds.
12. BahnTower — high-rise building at Potsdamer Platz, the headquarters of the railway holding company, Deutsche Bahn. The building on the East side is adjacent to the Sony Center. The height of the “glass” 26-storeyed building is 103 meters.
13. Dedicated to the history of Nazi crimes and the memory of his victims and exhibition center “Topography of terror”. Located in the so-called “quarter Gestapo”, on the site of the destroyed buildings of the security service of the reichsfuehrer SS and the headquarters of the state secret police of the Third Reich. In addition, the complex “Topography of terror” is a fragment of the Berlin wall.
14. Built in 1935, the headquarters of the Imperial Ministry of aviation was at the time the largest office building in Germany. The building, which is a unique case! — practically has not suffered during the bombing and the storming of Berlin, was located the office of Hermann Goering. Currently the complex belongs to the Ministry of Finance of Germany.
15. Mitte (German “the middle”) is a historic district and administrative district in Central Berlin. Here are the most attractions of the city, as well as public authorities and foreign embassies.
16. Key undisputed symbol of the city — Berlin TV tower in the Alexanderplatz district. Built on the territory of East Berlin in the years 1965-69 as the visible proof of the effectiveness of the socialist system. The height of 368 meters it is the highest building of Germany. With the tower is interesting story from the category of urban legends: that in Sunny weather on the “ball” appears the image of the cross, because of this optical illusion the tower is called “Revenge of the Pope”. According to the same legend, the bodies of state security of the GDR carried out special investigations, the outcome of which was the “catch phrase”: “It’s not a cross, but a plus socialism!”.
17. The largest Protestant Church in Germany, the Berlin Cathedral was built between 1894 and 1905. Height of 98 meters (initially, before the reconstruction of the injured in the war, the building with the dome was higher by 16 meters). Cathedral is a burial vault of the Royal Hohenzollern dynasty.
18. The old national gallery. Founded in 1861, the exhibition holds works of fine art of the XIX century. The gallery is located on Museum island in Berlin. Along with four other exhibits (Bode Museum, Pergamon Museum, etc.) to form Europe’s largest Museum complex, which is included in the UNESCO World heritage site.
19. The top is much more visible and rational approach of the Germans to the residential space: almost every home organized under the roof of the attic.
20. Karl-Liebknecht-straße, one of the busiest streets in the Eastern part of Berlin. Until 1945, bore the name of Kaiser Wilhelm. In the foreground in the center — the spire of St. Mary’s Church.
21. Line S-Bahn — city rail, light rail.
22. St. Mary’s Church (Marienkirche). First mentioned in the XIII century, reconstructed in the mid-seventeenth century. After the war, restored in 1970. The oldest operating in the Berlin Evangelical churches. Under the bell tower, exhibited the famous fresco on the popular medieval allegorical story “Dance of death”.
23. Presenter at Museum island, Bridge of Friedrich over the spree. Built in 1703, later rebuilt several times. In 1945 it was blown up by German troops. Rebuilt in wood in 1950, in concrete in 1981. In 2012, after yet another reconstruction of the bridge width made up the original 27 metres. By the way, Berlin is about 1700 bridges, it is four times more than in Venice.
24. Panorama of the Central part of Berlin. To the left of the TV tower in the background — the tallest building in the city, the Park Inn by Radisson Berlin Alexanderplatz (149,5 meters with antennas). From the 38th floor of the building with wild cries regularly, people are falling, and pay money for it: this attraction is a rope-jumping (we have more commonly known as “bungee”).
25. “Neptune” is one of the oldest fountains in Berlin. Built in 1891, re-opened after restoration in 1969. the diameter of the pool 18 meters, the height of the Trident shape of the sea God Neptune in the centre is 10 metres away.
26. In the foreground of the photo, the Red town hall. Built in 1861-69 years of red brick, that’s why it got its name. Destroyed in the war, the building was restored in the years 1951-58. The altitude of 74 metres. The building is the seat of the United earth government in Berlin and the governing mayor (mayor) of Berlin. Behind the red town hall in the photo is one of the oldest Berlin Church of St. Nicholas. Built in the XIII century. After the Second World war from the Church there was only the skeleton, recovered in the early 1980-ies. Now serves as a Museum and concert hall acoustics which is highly valued by the experts.
27. Square Breitscheidplatz in the centre of Western Berlin, a favorite meeting place and communication of youth from around the world. Founded in 1889. Previously carried the names of the first printer Johann Gutenberg and Empress Augusta Victoria. In 1947, named in memory of the victims of the concentration camp policy Rudolf Brightside. The area was severely damaged during the war, preserved the ruins of the memorial Church of Kaiser Wilhelm. Notoriety received in December 2016: Tunisian made on the area of the attack, drove into a Christmas market in a truck, 12 people were killed and more than fifty were wounded.
28. Standard construction of East Berlin.
29. A complex of residential high-rise buildings “Leipzig street” — the socialist response-opposed to the capitalist high-rise publishing house Axel Springer. The number of apartments in these houses for the project — about 2,000. In the course of construction in 1969 in East Berlin, this place was demolished after the war preserved historical buildings.
30. Berlin places is very similar to conventional residential areas of Russian cities.
31. The schönhauser Allee is the largest shopping street and the main transport axis in the Northern part of Berlin.
32. In the foreground is a complex of buildings of the Bundesrat in the area Leipziger Platz. The Parliament is unicameral in Germany (the Bundestag). And the Bundesrat in this case plays the role of a Council of the Federation includes representatives of all Federal States of Germany. In the background is the Mall of Berlin (LP12 Mall) — one of the largest shopping complexes in the country.
33. Color Berlin.
34. The Holocaust memorial is in the foreground on the left. Opened in 2005, between the Brandenburg gate and the bunker Nazi leadership. Monument to Jewish victims of Nazism is more the same than 2,700 gray stone slabs on a huge field that produce in the visitors a strong impression.
35. In the foreground in the center — Anhalter Bahnhof, once the largest passenger railway station, a major junction on the way from Germany to Austria-Hungary, and Italy. The post-war ruins of the station was demolished in August 1960. Now in the surviving fragment of the building is a stopping point of the s-Bahn of Berlin. In the center of the picture is the concert hall “Tempodrom”. The roof is stylized under a huge circus tent. Which initially it was. Its inspirer and the sponsor was a simple nurse from West Berlin: after receiving an unexpected large inheritance, she used that space for events, primarily for members of the underground. The current “modern” — is a capital structure built on the site of the former Anhalter Bahnhof train station.
36. The building of the Berlin office of the consulting and auditing company PricewaterhouseCoopers.
37. Potsdamer Platz and Sony Center. In the background is the largest city Park Berlin-Tiergarten.
38. The residence of the German Chancellor (Bundeskanzleramt). The construction took 4 years, the complex was commissioned on 2 may 2001. Is close to Brandenburg gate and the Reichstag.
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