Mertvoe sea – a miracle of nature.
The dead sea is the deepest salt lakes in the world, stretching along the border between Jordan, Israel and the Palestinian authority. For the high salinity of the lake received the title of sea. The water here is saltier than the ocean is about 8.6 times (in 1 liter of water 330,7 grams of salt). The surface of the unique lake is at 425 m below sea level making it the lowest point on the planet.
Length of the Dead sea reaches 67 km, maximum width is 18 km and the maximum depth is 378 meters. But every year the water level drops 1 meter sea retreats, leaving behind a soil hypernational salt. Rainwater washes out the salt, and in the soil voids, which are very easy to fail. On the territory of Israel and Jordan, there are about 1200 of failures, the depth of which sometimes reaches 25 metres. The biggest danger are the gaps that are formed along the roads and near residential complexes.
A high percentage of salinity precludes the possibility of the existence of living organisms, hence the name of the lake. However, in the Dead sea is still home to several species of tiny bacteria and one algae – Dunaliella.
The mineralogical composition of salt lake differs from the composition of salt in the water of other seas. It contains about 50.8 % magnesium chloride, 30.4% of sodium chloride, 4.4% of potassium chloride and 14.4 % calcium chloride. Thanks to the wealth of the Dead sea has become a unique health resort, which attracts many tourists from all over the world. In addition to the unusual composition of salts, the body of water known for its healing mud extracted from the lake bottom. Famous silt sulfide mud from the salty lake is highly mineralized, has a high content of iodine, hormone-like substances and bromine.
Mineral water of the Dead sea, transparent, oily, viscous liquid with a temperature of about 30 degrees. Immersion in water is a lot of pleasure, due to the high density of water of people it does not sink, and experiencing a feeling of weightlessness. Although salinity is well “holds” on the surface, actually dive or swim in the Dead sea will be very difficult. It will be easier to sit in water, as in a hammock. When immersed in water there is a feeling that it’s not water and oil.
I must say that here we have to take precautions to avoid cutting yourself on salt crystals, from which wounds heal very long, and not to splash and not to dive, because the water can seriously burn the retina of the eye. If this has occurred, the rescue shore duty with bottles of clean water. In General, to be in the water at a time recommended no more than 20 minutes on the Jordanian shore and no more than 15 minutes on the Israeli, where the water is even more mineralized.
Due to the fact that the Dead sea is the lowest point on the planet, the sun’s rays overcome an additional distance, lose all harmful ultraviolet light, so you can safely sunbathe indefinitely without harm to the body. The air is completely clean from impurities, is enriched with oxygen, while it increased the content of bromine, which is able to restore shaky nervous system and give the body extra strength.
The lake is fed by the waters of the Jordan river and streams flowing in winter from the slopes of the mountains Moat from the Jordan and the Judean hills in Israel, contribute and groundwater sources. The Jordan river brings daily into the Dead sea about 7 million tons of water that has no escape, but the heat of the Jordan valley rather quickly evaporates it. Physically, the lake consists of two basins connected by artificial canal. Under the bottom of the sea lies a thick layer of salt that formed by evaporation of sea Lashon about a million years ago.
From all sides the Dead sea is surrounded by desert. A unique lake about 5 million years ago as a result of strong tectonic processes that created the Great Afro-Asian rift. The crust in this area to the present day is in constant motion.
The lake shore is not less interesting than it itself. In some places the water has evaporated, leaving large tracts of salted, cracked from the heat of the earth, and just behind them rise the dry brown mountains. Further North these mountains blush, and near the southern part of the lake are a pillar of salt.
With one of these pillars is an ancient legend. The Bible mentions the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah, which were steeped in vices and sins. A lot of people virtuous and pious, was warned that these cities in the redemption of sins will be destroyed, and he and his family must leave this place. But none of his family in any case should not look. Unfortunately, Lot’s wife could not resist the desire to take one last look at the city and, according to legend, at that moment she turned into a huge pillar of salt still standing near the modern city of Gray. Interestingly, this phenomenon has a scientific explanation: in 1988, the American chemist A. Klotz suggested that when Lot’s wife stopped to see the city, it faced a wave of hot air from a blazing conflagration, which has the highest concentration of carbon dioxide Haas. This caused the connection in the body of calcite with carbon dioxide, and as a result instantly subsequent calcite crystallization, the woman turned into a fixed block of calcite, which in Hebrew was called “salt.”
Also the legend says that near the Dead sea, Lot and his daughters found refuge after Sodom was destroyed. The cave, which hid the Lot is located near the town of Safi, Jordan.
The historical authenticity of the existence of the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah is questioned, they are only mentioned in the biblical sources and unknown archaeology. But according to Russian researcher Yuri Kudinov’s the place where once stood Sodom and Gomorrah, now flooded Dead sea. Yuri managed to find a picture of an ancient map, which is stored in one of the universities of Israel. On the map these cities there are located at the confluence of rivers in the Dead sea. Now these rivers are long gone or they do not flow into the Dead sea. To confirm their suspicions, the jury used such a device as the sonar, which with the help of the reflected sound at a certain frequency allows you to take a picture of the bottom. When recording the sonar was decrypted, on some images scientists have suspected the objects clearly artificial origin. Then a group of Yuri Kudinov started filming under water with the help of Autonomous underwater camcorder, equipped with its own motors and control system. Shooting was not easy – very dense water in contact with it the light beam were given in front of the lens solid white wall. The matter was complicated by the fact that the use of any boats on the Dead sea is forbidden, so the team manually moved the raft mounted equipment. Cable length was only 50 meters, so the radius of the studies was significantly small. But even with all these factors in four days managed to remove ten-minute film with a more or less distinguishable image which quite clearly can be seen lying on the bottom of the object, like a column. There are other items in the form of large eggs, some overgrown with salt rounds. That is, today we can say for sure that this man-made items. And the presence of columns suggests that this place was some kind of structure.
According to the Bible, the Dead sea served as a refuge for king David. In addition, it is the first resort in the world (created for Herod the Great), and it is here extracted a large number of substances, ranging from balms for mummification in Ancient Egypt to a variety of fertilizers.
An unusual feature of the Dead sea is that it formed of natural asphalt in the form of small pebbles and stones black. In ancient times this “Jewish asphalt” bituminous liquid, float to the surface of the lake is used in industry and medicine.
In the vicinity of the salt sea was found the famous Qumran manuscripts or Dead sea scrolls. It is about 600 manuscripts, which prove that in the II century BC Jewish sect of the Essenes professed the principles are very similar to the precepts of the gospel. The first scrolls were accidentally found by a boy-a Bedouin in 1947.
Israel and Jordan are proud of their natural treasure. The Dead sea area – the main center of studies in healthcare and there are a few main reasons. Low humidity, high temperatures almost all year round, no in the atmosphere, pollen and other allergens, the particular ultraviolet radiation from the sun, curative mud, rich in organic components and minerals from sea water, thermo-mineral hot springs – it is this amazing cocktail has a beneficial effect on health and makes the Dead sea unique.
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